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Regression in Machine Learning: A Comprehensive Techniques Guide
Lorenzo Livi
Lorenzo Livi
June 28, 2023

As artificial intelligence and machine learning are becoming present in almost every aspect of life, it’s essential to understand how they work and their common applications. Although machine learning has been around for a while, many still portray it as an enemy. Machine learning can be your friend, but only if you learn to “tame” it.

Regression stands out as one of the most popular machine-learning techniques. It serves as a bridge that connects the past to the present and future. It does so by picking up on different “events” from the past and breaking them apart to analyze them. Based on this analysis, regression can make conclusions about the future and help many plan the next move.

The weather forecast is a basic example. With the regression technique, it’s possible to travel back in time to view average temperatures, humidity, and other variables relevant to the results. Then, you “return” to present and tailor predictions about the weather in the future.

There are different types of regression, and each has unique applications, advantages, and drawbacks. This article will analyze these types.

Linear Regression

Linear regression in machine learning is one of the most common techniques. This simple algorithm got its name because of what it does. It digs deep into the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Based on the findings, linear regression makes predictions about the future.

There are two distinguishable types of linear regression:

  • Simple linear regression – There’s only one input variable.
  • Multiple linear regression – There are several input variables.

Linear regression has proven useful in various spheres. Its most popular applications are:

  • Predicting salaries
  • Analyzing trends
  • Forecasting traffic ETAs
  • Predicting real estate prices

Polynomial Regression

At its core, polynomial regression functions just like linear regression, with one crucial difference – the former works with non-linear datasets.

When there’s a non-linear relationship between variables, you can’t do much with linear regression. In such cases, you send polynomial regression to the rescue. You do this by adding polynomial features to linear regression. Then, you analyze these features using a linear model to get relevant results.

Here’s a real-life example in action. Polynomial regression can analyze the spread rate of infectious diseases, including COVID-19.

Ridge Regression

Ridge regression is a type of linear regression. What’s the difference between the two? You use ridge regression when there’s high colinearity between independent variables. In such cases, you have to add bias to ensure precise long-term results.

This type of regression is also called L2 regularization because it makes the model less complex. As such, ridge regression is suitable for solving problems with more parameters than samples. Due to its characteristics, this regression has an honorary spot in medicine. It’s used to analyze patients’ clinical measures and the presence of specific antigens. Based on the results, the regression establishes trends.

LASSO Regression

No, LASSO regression doesn’t have anything to do with cowboys and catching cattle (although that would be interesting). LASSO is actually an acronym for Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator.

Like ridge regression, this one also belongs to regularization techniques. What does it regulate? It reduces a model’s complexity by eliminating parameters that aren’t relevant, thus concentrating the selection and guaranteeing better results.

Many choose ridge regression when analyzing a model with numerous true coefficients. When there are only a few of them, use LASSO. Therefore, their applications are similar; the real difference lies in the number of available coefficients.

Elastic Net Regression

Ridge regression is good for analyzing problems involving more parameters than samples. However, it’s not perfect; this regression type doesn’t promise to eliminate irrelevant coefficients from the equation, thus affecting the results’ reliability.

On the other hand, LASSO regression eliminates irrelevant parameters, but it sometimes focuses on far too few samples for high-dimensional data.

As you can see, both regressions are flawed in a way. Elastic net regression is the combination of the best characteristics of these regression techniques. The first phase is finding ridge coefficients, while the second phase involves a LASSO-like shrinkage of these coefficients to get the best results.

Support Vector Regression

Support vector machine (SVM) belongs to supervised learning algorithms and has two important uses:

  • Regression
  • Classification problems

Let’s try to draw a mental picture of how SVM works. Suppose you have two classes of items (let’s call them red circles and green triangles). Red circles are on the left, while green triangles are on the right. You can separate these two classes by drawing a line between them.

Things get a bit more complicated if you have red circles in the middle and green triangles wrapped around them. In that case, you can’t draw a line to separate the classes. But you can add new dimensions to the mix and create a circle (rectangle, square, or a different shape encompassing just the red circles).

This is what SVM does. It creates a hyperplane and analyzes classes depending on where they belong.

There are a few parameters you need to understand to grasp the reach of SVM fully:

  • Kernel – When you can’t find a hyperplane in a dimension, you move to a higher dimension, which is often challenging to navigate. A kernel is like a navigator that helps you find the hyperplane without plummeting computational costs.
  • Hyperplane – This is what separates two classes in SVM.
  • Decision boundary – Think of this as a line that helps you “decide” the placement of positive and negative examples.

Support vector regression takes a similar approach. It also creates a hyperplane to analyze classes but doesn’t classify them depending on where they belong. Instead, it tries to find a hyperplane that contains a maximum number of data points. At the same time, support vector regression tries to lower the risk of prediction errors.

SVM has various applications. It can be used in finance, bioinformatics, engineering, HR, healthcare, image processing, and other branches.

Decision Tree Regression

This type of supervised learning algorithm can solve both regression and classification issues and work with categorical and numerical datasets.

As its name indicates, decision tree regression deconstructs problems by creating a tree-like structure. In this tree, every node is a test for an attribute, every branch is the result of a test, and every leaf is the final result (decision).

The starting point of (the root) of every tree regression is the parent node. This node splits into two child nodes (data subsets), which are then further divided, thus becoming “parents” to their “children,” and so on.

You can compare a decision tree to a regular tree. If you take care of it and prune the unnecessary branches (those with irrelevant features), you’ll grow a healthy tree (a tree with concise and relevant results).

Due to its versatility and digestibility, decision tree regression can be used in various fields, from finance and healthcare to marketing and education. It offers a unique approach to decision-making by breaking down complex datasets into easy-to-grasp categories.

Random Forest Regression

Random forest regression is essentially decision tree regression but on a much bigger scale. In this case, you have multiple decision trees, each predicting a certain output. Random forest regression analyzes the outputs of every decision tree to come up with the final result.

Keep in mind that the decision trees used in random forest regression are completely independent; there’s no interaction between them until their outputs are analyzed.

Random forest regression is an ensemble learning technique, meaning it combines the results (predictions) of several machine learning algorithms to create one final prediction.

Like decision tree regression, this one can be used in numerous industries.

The Importance of Regression in Machine Learning Is Immeasurable

Regression in machine learning is like a high-tech detective. It travels back in time, identifies valuable clues, and analyzes them thoroughly. Then, it uses the results to predict outcomes with high accuracy and precision. As such, regression found its way to all niches.

You can use it in sales to analyze the customers’ behavior and anticipate their future interests. You can also apply it in finance, whether to discover trends in prices or analyze the stock market. Regression is also used in education, the tech industry, weather forecasting, and many other spheres.

Every regression technique can be valuable, but only if you know how to use it to your advantage. Think of your scenario (variables you want to analyze) and find the best actor (regression technique) who can breathe new life into it.

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A Closer Look at the Difference Between DBMS and RDBMS
John Loewen
June 27, 2023

Thanks to many technological marvels of our era, we’ve moved from writing important documents using pen and paper to storing them digitally.

Database systems emerged as the amount and complexity of information we need to keep have increased significantly in the last decades. They represent virtual warehouses for storing documents. Database management systems (DBMS) and relational database management systems (RDBMS) were born out of a burning need to easily control, organize, and edit databases.

Both DBMS and RDBMS represent programs for managing databases. But besides the one letter in the acronym, the two terms differ in several important aspects.

Here, we’ll outline the difference between DBMS and RDBMS, help you learn the ins and outs of both, and choose the most appropriate one.

Definition of DBMS (Database Management Systems)

While working for General Electric during the 1960s, Charles W. Bachman recognized the importance of proper document management and found that the solutions available at the time weren’t good enough. He did his research and came up with a database management system, a program that made storing, editing, and retrieving files a breeze. Unknowingly, Bachman revolutionized the industry and offered the world a convenient database management solution with amazing properties.

Key Features

Over the years, DBMSs have become powerful beasts that allow you to enhance performance and efficiency, save time, and handle huge amounts of data with ease.

One of the key features of DBMSs is that they store information as files in one of two forms: hierarchical or navigational. When managing data, users can use one of several manipulation functions the systems offer:

  • Inserting data
  • Deleting data
  • Updating data

DBMSs are simple structures ideal for smaller companies that don’t deal with huge amounts of data. Only a single user can handle information, which can be a deal-breaker for larger entities.

Although fairly simple, DBMSs bring a lot to the table. They allow you to access, edit, and share data in the blink of an eye. Moreover, DBMSs let you unify your team and have accurate and reliable information on the record, ensuring nobody is left out. They also help you stay compliant with different security and privacy regulations and lower the risk of violations. Finally, having an efficient database management system leads to wiser decision-making that can ultimately save you a lot of time and money.

Examples of Popular DBMS Software

When DBMSs were just becoming a thing, you had software like Clipper and FoxPro. Today, the most popular (and simplest) examples of DBMS software are XML, Windows Registry, and file systems.

Definition of RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems)

Not long after DBMS came into being, people recognized the need to keep data in the form of tables. They figured storing info in rows (tuples) and columns (attributes) allows a clearer view and easier navigation and information retrieval. This idea led to the birth of relational database management systems (RDBMS) in the 1970s.

Key Features

As mentioned, the only way RDBMSs store information is in the form of tables. Many love this feature because it makes organizing and classifying data according to different criteria a piece of cake. Many companies that use RDBMSs utilize multiple tables to store their data, and sometimes, the information in them can overlap. Fortunately, RDBMSs allow relating data from various tables to one another (hence the name). Thanks to this, you’ll have no trouble adding the necessary info in the right tables and moving it around as necessary.

Since you can relate different pieces of information from your tables to each other, you can achieve normalization. However, normalization isn’t the process of making your table normal. It’s a way of organizing information to remove redundancy and enhance data integrity.

In this technological day and age, we see data growing exponentially. If you’re working with RDBMSs, there’s no need to be concerned. The systems can handle vast amounts of information and offer exceptional speed and total control. Best of all, multiple users can access RDBMSs at a time and enhance your team’s efficiency, productivity, and collaboration.

Simply put, an RDBMS is a more advanced, powerful, and versatile version of DBMS. It offers speed, plenty of convenient features, and ease of use.

Examples of Popular RDBMS Software

As more and more companies recognize the advantages of using RDBMS, the availability of software grows by the day. Those who have tried several options agree that Oracle and MySQL are among the best choices.

Key Differences Between DBMS and RDBMS

Now that you’ve learned more about DBMS and RDBMS, you probably have an idea of the most significant differences between them. Here, we’ll summarize the key DBMS vs. RDBMS differences.

Data Storage and Organization

The first DBMS and RDBMS difference we’ll analyze is the way in which the systems store and organize information. With DBMS, data is stored and organized as files. This system uses either a hierarchical or navigational form to arrange the information. With DBMS, you can access only one element at a time, which can lead to slower processing.

On the other hand, RDBMS uses tables to store and display information. The data featured in several tables can be related to each other for ease of use and better organization. If you want to access multiple elements at the same time, you can; there are no constraints regarding this, as opposed to DBMS.

Data Integrity and Consistency

When discussing data integrity and consistency, it’s necessary to explain the concept of constraints in DBMS and RDBMS. Constraints are sets of “criteria” applied to data and/or operations within a system. When constraints are in place, only specific types of information can be displayed, and only specific operations can be completed. Sounds restricting, doesn’t it? The entire idea behind constraints is to enhance the integrity, consistency, and correctness of data displayed within a database.

DBMS lacks constraints. Hence, there’s no guarantee the data within this system is consistent or correct. Since there are no constraints, the risk of errors is higher.

RDBMS have constraints, resulting in the reliability and integrity of the data. Plus, normalization (removing redundancies) is another option that contributes to data integrity in RDBMS. Unfortunately, normalization can’t be achieved in DBMS.

Query Language and Data Manipulation

DBMS uses multiple query languages to manipulate data. However, none of these languages offer the speed and convenience present in RDBMS.

RDBMS manipulates data with structured query language (SQL). This language lets you retrieve, create, insert, or drop data within your relational database without difficulty.

Scalability and Performance

If you have a small company and/or don’t need to deal with vast amounts of data, a DBMS can be the way to go. But keep in mind that a DBMS can only be accessed by one person at a time. Plus, there’s no option to access more than one element at once.

With RDBMSs, scalability and performance are moved to a new level. An RDBMS can handle large amounts of information in a jiff. It also supports multiple users and allows you to access several elements simultaneously, thus enhancing your efficiency. This makes RDBMSs excellent for larger companies that work with large quantities of data.

Security and Access Control

Last but not least, an important difference between DBMS and RDBMS lies in security and access control. DBMSs have basic security features. Therefore, there’s a higher chance of breaches and data theft.

RDBMSs have various security measures in place that keep your data safe at all times.

Choosing the Right Database Management System

The first criterion that will help you make the right call is your project’s size and complexity. Small projects with relatively simple data are ideal for DBMSs. But if you’re tackling a lot of complex data, RDBMSs are the logical option.

Next, consider your budget and resources. Since they’re simpler, DBMSs are more affordable, in both aspects. RDBMSs are more complex, so naturally, the price of software is higher.

Finally, the factor that affects what option is the best for you is the desired functionality. What do you want from the program? Is it robust features or a simple environment with a few basic options? Your answer will guide you in the right direction.

Pros and Cons of DBMS and RDBMS



  • Doesn’t involve complex query processing
  • Cost-effective solution
  • Ideal for processing small data
  • Easy data handling via basic SQL queries


  • Doesn’t allow accessing multiple elements at once
  • No way to relate data
  • Doesn’t inherently support normalization
  • Higher risk of security breaches
  • Single-user system



  • Advanced, robust, and well-organized
  • Ideal for large quantities of information
  • Data from multiple tables can be related
  • Multi-user system
  • Supports normalization


  • More expensive
  • Complex for some people

Examples of Use Cases


DBMS is used in many sectors where more basic storing and management of data is required, be it sales and marketing, education, banking, or online shopping. For instance, universities use DBMS to store student-related data, such as registration details, fees paid, attendance, exam results, etc. Libraries use it to manage the records of thousands of books.


RDBMS is used in many industries today, especially those continuously requiring processing and storing large volumes of data. For instance, Airline companies utilize RDBMS for passenger and flight-related information and schedules. Human Resource departments use RDBMS to store and manage information related to employees and their payroll statistics. Manufacturers around the globe use RDBMS for operational data, inventory management and supply chain information.

Choose the Best Solution

An RDBM is a more advanced and powerful younger sibling of a DBMS. While the former offers more features, convenience, and the freedom to manipulate data as you please, it isn’t always the right solution. When deciding which road to take, prioritize your needs.

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Natural Language Processing: Unveiling AI’s Linguistic Power
Karim Bouzoubaa
Karim Bouzoubaa
June 26, 2023

Tens of thousands of businesses go under every year. There are various culprits, but one of the most common causes is the inability of companies to streamline their customer experience. Many technologies have emerged to save the day, one of which is natural language processing (NLP).

But what is natural language processing? In simple terms, it’s the capacity of computers and other machines to understand and synthesize human language.

It may already seem like it would be important in the business world and trust us – it is. Enterprises rely on this sophisticated technology to facilitate different language-related tasks. Plus, it enables machines to read and listen to language as well as interact with it in many other ways.

The applications of NLP are practically endless. It can translate and summarize texts, retrieve information in a heartbeat, and help set up virtual assistants, among other things.

Looking to learn more about these applications? You’ve come to the right place. Besides use cases, this introduction to natural language processing will cover the history, components, techniques, and challenges of NLP.

History of Natural Language Processing

Before getting to the nuts and bolts of NLP basics, this introduction to NLP will first examine how the technology has grown over the years.

Early Developments in NLP

Some people revolutionized our lives in many ways. For example, Alan Turing is credited with several groundbreaking advancements in mathematics. But did you also know he paved the way for modern computer science, and by extension, natural language processing?

In the 1950s, Turing wanted to learn if humans could talk to machines via teleprompter without noticing a major difference. If they could, he concluded the machine would be capable of thinking and speaking.

Turin’s proposal has since been used to gauge this ability of computers and is known as the Turing Test.

Evolution of NLP Techniques and Algorithms

Since Alan Turing set the stage for natural language processing, many masterminds and organizations have built upon his research:

  • 1958 – John McCarthy launched his Locator/Identifier Separation Protocol.
  • 1964 – Joseph Wizenbaum came up with a natural language processing model called ELIZA.
  • 1980s – IBM developed an array of NLP-based statistical solutions.
  • 1990s – Recurrent neural networks took center stage.

The Role of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning in NLP

Discussing NLP without mentioning artificial intelligence and machine learning is like leaving a glass half empty. So, what’s the role of these technologies in NLP? It’s pivotal, to say the least.

AI and machine learning are the cornerstone of most NLP applications. They’re the engine of the NLP features that produce text, allowing NLP apps to turn raw data into usable information.

Key Components of Natural Language Processing

The phrase building blocks get thrown around a lot in the computer science realm. It’s key to understanding different parts of this sphere, including natural language processing. So, without further ado, let’s rifle through the building blocks of NLP.

Syntax Analysis

An NLP tool without syntax analysis would be lost in translation. It’s a paramount stage since this is where the program extracts meaning from the provided information. In simple terms, the system learns what makes sense and what doesn’t. For instance, it rejects contradictory pieces of data close together, such as “cold Sun.”

Semantic Analysis

Understanding someone who jumbles up words is difficult or impossible altogether. NLP tools recognize this problem, which is why they undergo in-depth semantic analysis. The network hits the books, learning proper grammatical structures and word orders. It also determines how to connect individual words and phrases.

Pragmatic Analysis

A machine that relies only on syntax and semantic analysis would be too machine-like, which goes against Turing’s principles. Salvation comes in the form of pragmatic analysis. The NLP software uses knowledge outside the source (e.g., textbook or paper) to determine what the speaker actually wants to say.

Discourse Analysis

When talking to someone, there’s a point to your conversation. An NLP system is just like that, but it needs to go through extensive training to achieve the same level of discourse. That’s where discourse analysis comes in. It instructs the machine to use a coherent group of sentences that have a similar or the same theme.

Speech Recognition and Generation

Once all the above elements are perfected, it’s blast-off time. The NLP has everything it needs to recognize and generate speech. This is where the real magic happens – the system interacts with the user and starts using the same language. If each stage has been performed correctly, there should be no significant differences between real speech and NLP-based applications.

Natural Language Processing Techniques

Different analyses are common for most (if not all) NLP solutions. They all point in one direction, which is recognizing and generating speech. But just like Google Maps, the system can choose different routes. In this case, the routes are known as NLP techniques.

Rule-Based Approaches

Rule-based approaches might be the easiest NLP technique to understand. You feed your rules into the system, and the NLP tool synthesizes language based on them. If input data isn’t associated with any rule, it doesn’t recognize the information – simple as that.

Statistical Methods

If you go one level up on the complexity scale, you’ll see statistical NLP methods. They’re based on advanced calculations, which enable an NLP platform to predict data based on previous information.

Neural Networks and Deep Learning

You might be thinking: “Neural networks? That sounds like something out of a medical textbook.” Although that’s not quite correct, you’re on the right track. Neural networks are NLP techniques that feature interconnected nodes, imitating neural connections in your brain.

Deep learning is a sub-type of these networks. Basically, any neural network with at least three layers is considered a deep learning environment.

Transfer Learning and Pre-Trained Language Models

The internet is like a massive department store – you can find almost anything that comes to mind here. The list includes pre-trained language models. These models are trained on enormous quantities of data, eliminating the need for you to train them using your own information.

Transfer learning draws on this concept. By tweaking pre-trained models to accommodate a particular project, you perform a transfer learning maneuver.

Applications of Natural Language Processing

With so many cutting-edge processes underpinning NLP, it’s no surprise it has practically endless applications. Here are some of the most common natural language processing examples:

  • Search engines and information retrieval – An NLP-based search engine understands your search intent to retrieve accurate information fast.
  • Sentiment analysis and social media monitoring – NLP systems can even determine your emotional motivation and uncover the sentiment behind social media content.
  • Machine translation and language understanding – NLP software is the go-to solution for fast translations and understanding complex languages to improve communication.
  • Chatbots and virtual assistants – A state-of-the-art NLP environment is behind most chatbots and virtual assistants, which allows organizations to enhance customer support and other key segments.
  • Text summarization and generation – A robust NLP infrastructure not only understands texts but also summarizes and generates texts of its own based on your input.

Challenges and Limitations of Natural Language Processing

Natural language processing in AI and machine learning is mighty but not almighty. There are setbacks to this technology, but given the speedy development of AI, they can be considered a mere speed bump for the time being:

  • Ambiguity and complexity of human language – Human language keeps evolving, resulting in ambiguous structures NLP often struggles to grasp.
  • Cultural and contextual nuances – With approximately 4,000 distinct cultures on the globe, it’s hard for an NLP system to understand the nuances of each.
  • Data privacy and ethical concerns – As every NLP platform requires vast data, the methods for sourcing this data tend to trigger ethical concerns.
  • Computational resources and computing power – The more polished an NLP tool becomes, the greater the computing power must be, which can be hard to achieve.

The Future of Natural Language Processing

The final part of our take on natural language processing in artificial intelligence asks a crucial question: What does the future hold for NLP?

  • Advancements in artificial intelligence and machine learning – Will AI and machine learning advancements help NLP understand more complex and nuanced languages faster?
  • Integration of NLP with other technologies – How well will NLP integrate with other technologies to facilitate personal and corporate use?
  • Personalized and adaptive language models – Can you expect developers to come up with personalized and adaptive language models to accommodate those with speech disorders better?
  • Ethical considerations and guidelines for NLP development – How will the spearheads of NLP development address ethical problems if the technology requires more and more data to execute?

The Potential of Natural Language Processing Is Unrivaled

It’s hard to find a technology that’s more important for today’s businesses and society as a whole than natural language processing. It streamlines communication, enabling people from all over the world to connect with each other.

The impact of NLP will amplify if the developers of this technology can address the above risks. By honing the software with other platforms while minimizing privacy issues, they can dispel any concerns associated with it.

If you want to learn more about NLP, don’t stop here. Use these natural language processing notes as a stepping stone for in-depth research. Also, consider an NLP course to gain a deep understanding of this topic.

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Everything You Need to Know About Keys in DBMS
John Loewen
June 26, 2023

In a database, you have entities (which have attributes), and relationships between those entities. Managing them is key to preventing chaos from engulfing your database, which is where the concept of keys comes in. These unique identifiers enable you to pick specific rows in an entity set, as well as define their relationships to rows in other entity sets, allowing your database to handle complex computations.

Let’s explore keys in DBMS (database management systems) in more detail, before digging into everything you need to know about the most important keys – primary keys.

Understanding Keys in DBMS

Keys in DBMS are attributes that you use to identify specific rows inside a table, in addition to finding the relation between two tables. For example, let’s say you have a table for students, with that table recording each student’s “ID Number,” “Name,” “Address,” and “Teacher” as attributes. If you want to identify a specific student in the table, you’ll need to use one of these attributes as a key that allows you to pull the student’s record from your database. In this case “ID Number” is likely the best choice because it’s a unique attribute that only applies to a single student.

Types of Keys in DBMS

Beyond the basics of serving as unique identifiers for rows in a database, keys in DBMS can take several forms:

  • Primary Keys – An attribute that is present in the table for all of the records it contains, with each instance of that attribute being unique to the record. The previously-mentioned “ID Number” for students is a great example, as no student can have the same number as another student.
  • Foreign Key – Foreign keys allow you to define and establish relationships between a pair of tables. If Table A needs to refer to the primary key in Table B, you’ll use a foreign key in Table A so you have values in that table to match those in Table B.
  • Unique Key – These are very similar to primary keys in that both contain unique identifiers for the records in a table. The only difference is that a unique key can contain a null value, whereas a primary key can’t.
  • Candidate Key – Though you may have picked a unique attribute to serve as your primary key, there may be other candidates within a table. Coming back to the student example, you may record the phone numbers and email addresses of your students, which can be as unique as the student ID assigned to the individual. These candidate keys are also unique identifiers, allowing them to be used in tandem with a primary key to identify a specific row in a table.
  • Composite Key – If you have attributes that wouldn’t be unique when taken alone, but can be combined to form a unique identifier for a record, you have a composite key.
  • Super Key – This term refers to the collection of attributes that uniquely identify a record, meaning it’s a combination of candidate keys. Just like an employer sifting through job candidates to find the perfect person, you’ll sift through your super key set to choose the ideal primary key amongst your candidate keys.

So, why are keys in DBMS so important?

Keys ensure you maintain data integrity across all of the tables that make up your database. Without them, the relationships between each table become messy hodgepodges, creating the potential for duplicate records and errors that deliver inaccurate reports from the database. Having unique identifiers (in the form of keys) allows you to be certain that any record you pull, and the relationships that apply to that record, are accurate and unrepeated.

Primary Key Essentials

As mentioned, any unique attribute in a table can serve as a primary key, though this doesn’t mean that every unique attribute is a great choice. The following characteristics help you to define the perfect primary key.


If your primary key is repeatable across records, it can’t serve as a unique identifier for a single record. For example, our student table may have multiple people named “John,” so you can’t use the “Name” attribute to find a specific student. You need something unique to that student, such as the previously mentioned ID number.

Non-Null Values

Primary keys must always contain a value, else you risk losing records in a table because you have no way of calling upon them. This need for non-null values can be used to eliminate some candidates from primary key content. For instance, it’s feasible (though unlikely) that a student won’t have an email address, creating the potential for null values that mean the email address attribute can’t be a primary key.


A primary key that can change over time is a key that can cause confusion. Immutability is the term used for any attribute that’s unchanging to the point where it’s an evergreen attribute that you can use to identify a specific record forever.


Ideally, one table should have one attribute that serves as its primary key, which is where the term “minimal” comes in. It’s possible for a table to have a composite or super key set, though both create the possibility of confusion and data integrity issues.

The Importance of a Primary Key in DBMS

We can distill the reason why having a primary key in DBMS for each of your tables is important into the following reasons:

  • You can use a primary key to identify each unique record in a table, meaning no multi-result returns to your database searches.
  • Having a primary key means a record can’t be repeated in the table.
  • Primary keys make data retrieval more efficient because you can use a single attribute for searches rather than multiple.

Functions of Primary Keys

Primary keys in DBMS serve several functions, each of which is critical to your DBMS.

Data Identification

Imagine walking into a crowded room and shouting out a name. The odds are that several people (all of whom have the same name) will turn their heads to look at you. That’s basically what you’re doing if you try to pull records from a table without using a primary key.

A primary key in DBMS serves as a unique identifier that you can use to pull specific records. Coming back to the student example mentioned earlier, a “Student ID” is only applicable to a single student, making it a unique identifier you can use to find that student in your database.

Ensure Data Integrity

Primary keys protect data integrity in two ways.

First, they prevent duplicate records from building up inside a single table, ensuring you don’t get multiple instances of the same record. Second, they ensure referential integrity, which is the term used to describe what happens when one table in your database needs to refer to the records stored in another table.

For example, let’s say you have tables for “Students” and “Teachers” in your database. The primary keys assigned to your students and teachers allow you to pull individual records as needed from each table. But every “Teacher” has multiple “Students” in their class. So, your primary key from the “Students” table is used as a foreign key in the “Teachers” table, allowing you to denote the one-to-many relationship between a teacher and their class of students. That foreign key also ensures referential integrity because it contains the unique identifiers for students, which you can look up in your “Students” table.

Data Retrieval

If you need to pull a specific record from a table, you can’t rely on attributes that can repeat across several records in that table. Again, the “Name” example highlights the problem here, as several people could have the same name. You need a unique identifier for each record so you can retrieve a single record from a huge set without having to pore through hundreds (or even thousands) of records.

Best Practices for Primary Key Selection

Now that you understand how primary keys in DBMS work, here are some best practices for selecting the right primary key for your table:

  • Choose Appropriate Attributes as Candidates – If the attribute isn’t unique to each record, or it can contain a null value (as is the case with email addresses and phone numbers), it’s not a good candidate for a primary key.
  • Avoid Using Sensitive Information – Using personal or sensitive information as a primary key creates a security risk because anybody who cracks your database could use that information for other purposes. Make your primary keys unique, and only applicable, to your database, which allows you to encrypt any sensitive information stored in your tables.
  • Consider Surrogate Keys – Some tables don’t have natural attributes that you can use as primary keys. In these cases, you can create a primary key out of thin air and assign it to each record. The “Student ID” referenced earlier is a great example, as students entering a school don’t come with their own ID numbers. Those numbers are given to the student (or simply used in the database that collects their data), making them surrogate keys.
  • Ensure Primary Key Stability – Any attribute that can change isn’t suitable for use as a primary key because it causes stability issues. Names, email addresses, phone numbers, and even bank account details are all things that can change, making them unsuitable. Evergreen and unchanging is the way to go with primary keys.

Choose the Right Keys for Your Database

You need to understand the importance of a primary key in DBMS (or multiple primary keys when you have several tables) so you can define the relationships between tables and identify unique records inside your tables. Without primary keys, you’ll find it much harder to run reports because you won’t feel confident in the accuracy of the data returned. Each search may pull up duplicate or incorrect records because of a lack of unique identifiers.

Thankfully, many of the tables you create will have attributes that lend themselves well to primary key status. And even when that isn’t the case, you can use surrogate keys in DBMS to assign primary keys to your tables. Experiment with your databases, testing different potential primary keys to see what works best for you.

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Supervised vs. Unsupervised Learning: Algorithms, Examples & Differences
Lorenzo Livi
Lorenzo Livi
June 26, 2023

The human brain is among the most complicated organs and one of nature’s most amazing creations. The brain’s capacity is considered limitless; there isn’t a thing it can’t remember. Although many often don’t think about it, the processes that happen in the mind are fascinating.

As technology evolved over the years, scientists figured out a way to make machines think like humans, and this process is called machine learning. Like cars need fuel to operate, machines need data and algorithms. With the application of adequate techniques, machines can learn from this data and even improve their accuracy as time passes.

Two basic machine learning approaches are supervised and unsupervised learning. You can already assume the biggest difference between them based on their names. With supervised learning, you have a “teacher” who shows the machine how to analyze specific data. Unsupervised learning is completely independent, meaning there are no teachers or guides.

This article will talk more about supervised and unsupervised learning, outline their differences, and introduce examples.

Supervised Learning

Imagine a teacher trying to teach their young students to write the letter “A.” The teacher will first set an example by writing the letter on the board, and the students will follow. After some time, the students will be able to write the letter without assistance.

Supervised machine learning is very similar to this situation. In this case, you (the teacher) train the machine using labeled data. Such data already contains the right answer to a particular situation. The machine then uses this training data to learn a pattern and applies it to all new datasets.

Note that the role of a teacher is essential. The provided labeled datasets are the foundation of the machine’s learning process. If you withhold these datasets or don’t label them correctly, you won’t get any (relevant) results.

Supervised learning is complex, but we can understand it through a simple real-life example.

Suppose you have a basket filled with red apples, strawberries, and pears and want to train a machine to identify these fruits. You’ll teach the machine the basic characteristics of each fruit found in the basket, focusing on the color, size, shape, and other relevant features. If you introduce a “new” strawberry to the basket, the machine will analyze its appearance and label it as “strawberry” based on the knowledge it acquired during training.

Types of Supervised Learning

You can divide supervised learning into two types:

  • Classification – You can train machines to classify data into categories based on different characteristics. The fruit basket example is the perfect representation of this scenario.
  • Regression – You can train machines to use specific data to make future predictions and identify trends.

Supervised Learning Algorithms

Supervised learning uses different algorithms to function:

  • Linear regression – It identifies a linear relationship between an independent and a dependent variable.
  • Logistic regression – It typically predicts binary outcomes (yes/no, true/false) and is important for classification purposes.
  • Support vector machines – They use high-dimensional features to map data that can’t be separated by a linear line.
  • Decision trees – They predict outcomes and classify data using tree-like structures.
  • Random forests – They analyze several decision trees to come up with a unique prediction/result.
  • Neural networks – They process data in a unique way, very similar to the human brain.

Supervised Learning: Examples and Applications

There’s no better way to understand supervised learning than through examples. Let’s dive into the real estate world.

Suppose you’re a real estate agent and need to predict the prices of different properties in your city. The first thing you’ll need to do is feed your machine existing data about available houses in the area. Factors like square footage, amenities, a backyard/garden, the number of rooms, and available furniture, are all relevant factors. Then, you need to “teach” the machine the prices of different properties. The more, the better.

A large dataset will help your machine pick up on seemingly minor but significant trends affecting the price. Once your machine processes this data and you introduce a new property to it, it will be able to cross-reference its features with the existing database and come up with an accurate price prediction.

The applications of supervised learning are vast. Here are the most popular ones:

  • Sales – Predicting customers’ purchasing behavior and trends
  • Finance – Predicting stock market fluctuations, price changes, expenses, etc.
  • Healthcare – Predicting risk of diseases and infections, surgery outcomes, necessary medications, etc.
  • Weather forecasts – Predicting temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, etc.
  • Face recognition – Identifying people in photos

Unsupervised Learning

Imagine a family with a baby and a dog. The dog lives inside the house, so the baby is used to it and expresses positive emotions toward it. A month later, a friend comes to visit, and they bring their dog. The baby hasn’t seen the dog before, but she starts smiling as soon as she sees it.


Because the baby was able to draw her own conclusions based on the new dog’s appearance: two ears, tail, nose, tongue sticking out, and maybe even a specific noise (barking). Since the baby has positive emotions toward the house dog, she also reacts positively to a new, unknown dog.

This is a real-life example of unsupervised learning. Nobody taught the baby about dogs, but she still managed to make accurate conclusions.

With supervised machine learning, you have a teacher who trains the machine. This isn’t the case with unsupervised learning. Here, it’s necessary to give the machine freedom to explore and discover information. Therefore, this machine learning approach deals with unlabeled data.

Types of Unsupervised Learning

There are two types of unsupervised learning:

  • Clustering – Grouping uncategorized data based on their common features.
  • Dimensionality reduction – Reducing the number of variables, features, or columns to capture the essence of the available information.

Unsupervised Learning Algorithms

Unsupervised learning relies on these algorithms:

  • K-means clustering – It identifies similar features and groups them into clusters.
  • Hierarchical clustering – It identifies similarities and differences between data and groups them hierarchically.
  • Principal component analysis (PCA) – It reduces data dimensionality while boosting interpretability.
  • Independent component analysis (ICA) – It separates independent sources from mixed signals.
  • T-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE) – It explores and visualizes high-dimensional data.

Unsupervised Learning: Examples and Applications

Let’s see how unsupervised learning is used in customer segmentation.

Suppose you work for a company that wants to learn more about its customers to build more effective marketing campaigns and sell more products. You can use unsupervised machine learning to analyze characteristics like gender, age, education, location, and income. This approach is able to discover who purchases your products more often. After getting the results, you can come up with strategies to push the product more.

Unsupervised learning is often used in the same industries as supervised learning but with different purposes. For example, both approaches are used in sales. Supervised learning can accurately predict prices relying on past data. On the other hand, unsupervised learning analyzes the customers’ behaviors. The combination of the two approaches results in a quality marketing strategy that can attract more buyers and boost sales.

Another example is traffic. Supervised learning can provide an ETA to a destination, while unsupervised learning digs a bit deeper and often looks at the bigger picture. It can analyze a specific area to pinpoint accident-prone locations.

Differences Between Supervised and Unsupervised Learning

These are the crucial differences between the two machine learning approaches:

  • Data labeling – Supervised learning uses labeled datasets, while unsupervised learning uses unlabeled, “raw” data. In other words, the former requires training, while the latter works independently to discover information.
  • Algorithm complexity – Unsupervised learning requires more complex algorithms and powerful tools that can handle vast amounts of data. This is both a drawback and an advantage. Since it operates on complex algorithms, it’s capable of handling larger, more complicated datasets, which isn’t a characteristic of supervised learning.
  • Use cases and applications – The two approaches can be used in the same industries but with different purposes. For example, supervised learning is used in predicting prices, while unsupervised learning is used in detecting customers’ behavior or anomalies.
  • Evaluation metrics – Supervised learning tends to be more accurate (at least for now). Machines still require a bit of our input to display accurate results.

Choose Wisely

Do you need to teach your machine different data, or can you trust it to handle the analysis on its own? Think about what you want to analyze. Unsupervised and supervised learning may sound similar, but they have different uses. Choosing an inadequate approach leads to unreliable, irrelevant results.

Supervised learning is still more popular than unsupervised learning because it offers more accurate results. However, this approach can’t handle larger, complex datasets and requires human intervention, which isn’t the case with unsupervised learning. Therefore, we may see a rise in the popularity of the unsupervised approach, especially as the technology evolves and enables more accuracy.

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RDBMS: An Introduction to the Relational Database Management System
Lokesh Vij
Lokesh Vij
June 26, 2023

When you first get into modern computing, one of the terms that comes up most frequently is relational databases. These are clusters that are organized in such a way that they effortlessly find links between connected data points.

Relational databases are convenient, but what happens when you deal with vast amounts of information? You need something to act as your North Star, guiding you through the network and allowing you to stay on top of the data.

That something is an RDBMS. According to Google, RDBMS stands for a relational database management system – software that sets up and manages relational databases. In its full form, it’s been the light at the end of the tunnel for thousands of companies due to its accuracy, security, and ease of use.

The definition and importance of RDBMSs are the tip of the iceberg when it comes to these systems. This introduction to RDBMS will delve a bit deeper by taking a closer look at the concept of RDBMS, the history of this technology, use cases, and the most common examples.

History of RDBMS

The concept of RDBMS might be shrouded in mystery for some. Thus, several questions may come up when discussing the notion, including one as basic as “What is RDBMS?”

Knowing the RDBMS definition is a great starting point on your journey to understanding this concept. But let’s take a few steps back and delve into the history of this system.

Origins of the Relational Model

What if we told you that the RDBMS concepts are older than the internet? It may sound surprising, but it’s true.

The concept of RDBMS was developed by Edgar F. Codd 43 years ago. He aimed to propose a more efficient way to store information, a method that would consume drastically less memory than anything at the time. His model was groundbreaking, to say the least.

E.F. Codd’s Paper on Relational Model

Codd laid down his proposal in a 1970s paper called “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks.” He advocated a database solution comprised of intertwined tables. These tables enabled the user to keep their information compact, lowering the amount of disk space necessary for storage (which was scarce at the time).

The rest is history. The public welcomed Codd’s model with open arms since it optimized storage requirements and allowed people to answer practically any question using his principle.

Development of SQL

Codd’s research paved the way for relational database management systems, the most famous of which is SQL. This programming language was also developed in the ‘70s and was originally named SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language). It was quickly implemented across the computing industry and grew more powerful as the years went by.

Evolution of RDBMS Software

The evolution of RDBMS software has been fascinating.

Early RDBMS Software

The original RDBMS software was powerful, but it wasn’t a cure-all. It was a match made in heaven for users dealing with structured data, allowing them to organize it with minimal effort. However, pictures, music, and other forms of unstructured information were largely incompatible with this model.

Modern RDBMS Software

Today’s RDBMS solutions have come a long way from their humble beginnings. A modern relational DBMS can process different forms of information with ease. Programs like MySQL are versatile, adaptable, and easy to set up, helping database professionals spearhead the development of practically any application.

Key Concepts in RDBMS

Here’s another request you may have for an expert in RDBMS – explain the most significant relational database concepts. If that’s your question, your request has been granted. Coming up is an overview of RDBMS concepts that explain RDBMS in simple terms.

Tables and Relations

Tables and relations are the bread and butter of all relational database management systems. They sound straightforward, but they’re much different from, say, elements you come across in Microsoft Excel.

Definition of Tables

Tables are where data is stored in an RDBMS. They’re comprised of rows and columns for easier organization.

Definition of Relations

Relations are the links between tables. There can be several types of relations, such as one-to-one connections. This form means a data point from one table only matches one data point from another table.

Primary and Foreign Keys

No discussion about RDBMS solutions is complete without primary and foreign keys.

Definition of Primary Keys

A primary key is the unique element of each table that defines the table’s rows. The number of primary keys in a table is limited to one.

Definition of Foreign Keys

Foreign keys are used to form an inextricable bond between tables. They always refer to the primary key of another table.


Much of database management is akin to separating wheat from the chaff. One of the processes that allow you to do so is normalization.

Purpose of Normalization

Normalization is about restoring (or creating) order in a database. It’s the procedure of eradicating unnecessary data for the purpose of cleaner tables and smoother management.

Normal Forms

Every action has its reaction. For example, the reaction of normalization is normal forms. These are forms of data that are free from redundant or duplicate information, making them easily accessible.

Popular RDBMS Software

This article has dissected basic relational database concepts, the RDBMS meaning, and RDBMS full form. To further shed light on the technology, take a look at the crème de la crème of RDBMS platforms.

Oracle Database

If you want to make headway in the database management industry, Oracle Database can be one of your best friends.

Overview of Oracle Database

Oracle Database is the most famous RDBMS around. The very database of this network is called Oracle, and the software comes in five different versions. Each rendition has a specific set of features and benefits, but some perks hold true for each one.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Highly secure – Oracle employs top-grade security measures.
  • Scalable – The system supports company growth with adaptable features.
  • Available – You can tap into the architecture whenever necessary for seamless adjustments.

Microsoft SQL Server

Let’s see what another powerhouse – Microsoft SQL Server – brings to the table.

Overview of Microsoft SQL Server

Microsoft SQL Server is a reliable RDBMS with admirable capabilities. Like Oracle, it’s available in a range of editions to target different groups, including personal and enterprise users.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Fast – Few systems rival the speed of Microsoft SQL Server.
  • Versatile – The network supports on-premise and cloud applications.
  • Affordable – You won’t burn a hole in your pocket if you buy the standard version.


You can take your business to new heights with MySQL. The following section will explore what makes this RDBMS a go-to pick for Uber, Slack, and many other companies.

Overview of MySQL

MySQL is another robust RDBMS that enables fast data retrieval. It’s an open-source solution, making it less complex than some other platforms.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Quick – Efficient memory use speeds up the MySQL environment.
  • Secure – Bulletproof password systems safeguard against hacks.
  • Scalable – You can use MySQL both for small and large data sets.


Last but not least, PostgreSQL is a worthy contender for the best RDBMS on the market.

Overview of PostgreSQL

If you need a long-running RDBMS, you can’t go wrong with PostgreSQL. It’s an open-source solution that’s received more than two decades’ worth of refinement.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Nested transactions – These elements deliver higher concurrency control.
  • Anti-hack environment – Advanced locking features keep cybercriminals at bay.
  • Table inheritance – This feature makes the network more consistent.

RDBMS Use Cases

Now we get to what might be the crux of the RDBMS discussion: Where can you implement these convenient solutions?

Data Storage and Retrieval

  • Storing large amounts of structured data – Use an RDBMS to keep practically unlimited structured data.
  • Efficient data retrieval – Retrieve data in a split second with an RDBMS.

Data Analysis and Reporting

  • Analyzing data for trends and patterns – Discover customer behavior trends with a robust RDBMS.
  • Generating reports for decision-making – Facilitate smart decision-making with RDBMS-generated reports.

Application Development

  • Backend for web and mobile applications – Develop a steady web and mobile backend architecture with your RDBMS.
  • Integration with other software and services – Combine an RDBMS with other programs to elevate its functionality.

RDBMS vs. NoSQL Database

Many alternatives to RDBMS have sprung up, including NoSQL databases. But what makes these two systems different?

Overview of NoSQL Databases

A NoSQL database is the stark opposite of RDBMS solutions. It takes a non-relational approach, which is deemed more efficient by many.

Key Differences Between RDBMS and NoSQL Databases

  • Data model – RDBMSs store structured data, whereas NoSQL databases store unstructured information.
  • Scalability – NoSQL is more scalable because it doesn’t require a fixed schema (relation-based model).
  • Consistency – RDBMSs achieve consistency through rules, while NoSQL models feature eventual consistency.

Choosing the Right Database for Your Needs

Keep these guidelines in mind when selecting your database platform:

  • Use an RDBMS for centralized apps and NoSQL for decentralized solutions.
  • Use an RDBMS for structured data and NoSQL for unstructured data.
  • Use an RDBMS for moderate data activity and NoSQL for high data activity.

Exploring the Vast Utility of RDBMS

If you’re looking for a descriptive answer to the “what is relational database management system question,” here it is – it is the cornerstone of database management for countless enterprises. It’s ideal for structured data projects and gives the user the reins of data management. Plus, it’s as secure as it gets.

The future looks even more promising. Database professionals are expected to rely more on blockchain technology and cloud storage to elevate the efficacy of RDBMS.

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A Comprehensive Guide to Understanding ER Diagrams in DBMS
John Loewen
June 25, 2023

An ER diagram in DBMS (database management systems) is a lot like a storyboard for an animated TV show – it’s a collection of diagrams that show how everything fits together. Where a storyboard demonstrates the flow from one scene to the next, an ER diagram highlights the components of your databases and the relationships they share.

Understanding the ER model in DBMS is the first step to getting to grips with basic database software (like Microsoft Access) and more complex database-centric programming languages, such as SQL. This article explores ER diagrams in detail.

ER Model in DBMS

An ER diagram in DBMS is a tangible representation of the tables in a database, the relationships between each of those tables, and the attributes of each table. These diagrams feature three core components:

  • Entities – Represented by rectangles in the diagram, entities are objects or concepts used throughout your database.
  • Attributes – These are the properties that each entity possesses. ER diagrams use ellipses to represent attributes, with the attributes themselves tending to be the fields in a table. For example, an entity for students in a school’s internal database may have attributes for student names, birthdays, and unique identification numbers.
  • Relationships – No entity in an ER diagram is an island, as each is linked to at least one other. These relationships can take multiple forms, with said relationships dictating the flow of information through the database.

Mapping out your proposed database using the ER model is essential because it gives you a visual representation of how the database works before you start coding or creating. Think of it like the blueprint you’d use to build a house, with that blueprint telling you where you need to lay every brick and fit every door.

Entities in DBMS

An Entity in DBMS tends to represent a real-life thing (like the students mentioned previously) that you can identify with certain types of data. Each entity is distinguishable from the others in your database, meaning you won’t have multiple entities listing student details.

Entities come in two flavors:

  • Tangible Entities – These are physical things that exist in the real world, such as a person, vehicle, or building.
  • Intangible Entities – If you can see and feel an entity, it’s intangible. Bank accounts are good examples. We know they exist (and have data attributed to them) but we can’t physically touch them.

There are also different entity strengths to consider:

  • Strong Entities – A strong entity is represented using a rectangle and will have at least one key attribute attached to it that allows you to identify it uniquely. In the student example we’ve already shared, a student’s ID number could be a unique identifier, creating a key attribute that leads to the “Student” entity being strong.
  • Weak Entities – Weak entities have no unique identifiers, meaning you can’t use them alone. Represented using double-outlined rectangles, these entities rely on the existence of strong entities to exist themselves. Think of it like the relationship between parent and child. A child can’t exist without a parent, in the same way that a weak entity can’t exist without a strong entity.

Once you’ve established what your entities are, you’ll gather each specific type of entity into an entity set. This set is like a table that contains the data for each entity in a uniform manner. Returning to the student example, any entity that has a student ID number, name, and birthdate, may be placed into an overarching “Student” entity set. They’re basically containers for specific entity types.

Attributes in DBMS

Every entity you establish has attributes attached to it, as you’ve already seen with the student example used previously. These attributes offer details about various aspects of the entity and come in four types:

  • Simple Attributes – A simple attribute is any attribute that you can’t break down into further categories. A student ID number is a good example, as this isn’t something you can expand upon.
  • Composite Attributes – Composite attributes are those that may have other attributes attached to them. If “Name” is one of your attributes, its composites could be “First Name,” “Surname,” “Maiden Name,” and “Nickname.”
  • Derived Attributes – If you can derive an attribute from another attribute, it falls into this category. For instance, you can use a student’s date of birth to derive their age and grade level. These attributes have dotted ellipses surrounding them.
  • Multi-valued Attributes – Represented by dual-ellipses, these attributes cover anything that can have multiple values. Phone numbers are good examples, as people can have several cell phone or landline numbers.

Attributes are important when creating an ER model in DBMS because they show you what types of data you’ll use to populate your entities.

Relationships in DBMS

As your database becomes more complex, you’ll create several entities and entity sets, with each having relationships with others. You represent these relationships using lines, creating a network of entities with line-based descriptions telling you how information flows between them.

There are three types of relationships for an ER diagram in DBMS:

  • One-to-One Relationships – You’ll use this relationship when one entity can only have one of another entity. For example, if a school issues ID cards to its students, it’s likely that each student can only have one card. Thus, you have a one-to-one relationship between the student and ID card entities.
  • One-to-Many Relationships – This relationship type is for when one entity can have several of another entity, but the relationship doesn’t work in reverse. Bank accounts are a good example, as a customer can have several bank accounts, but each account is only accessible to one customer.
  • Many-to-Many Relationships – You use these relationships to denote when two entities can have several of each other. Returning to the student example, a student will have multiple classes, with each class containing several students, creating a many-to-many relationship.

These relationships are further broken down into “relationship sets,” which bring together all of the entities that participate in the same type of relationship. These sets have three varieties:

  • Unary – Only one entity participates in the relationship.
  • Binary – Two entities are in the relationship, such as the student and course example mentioned earlier.
  • n-ary – Multiple entities participate in the relationship, with “n” being the number of entities.

Your ER diagram in DBMS needs relationships to show how each entity set relates to (and interacts with) the others in your diagram.

ER Diagram Notations

You’ll use various forms of notation to denote the entities, attributes, relationships, and the cardinality of those relationships in your ER diagram.

Entity Notations

Entities are denoted using rectangles around a word or phrase, with a solid rectangle meaning a strong entity and a double-outlined rectangle denoting a weak entity.

Attribute Notations

Ellipses are the shapes of choice for attributes, with the following uses for each attribute type:

  • Simple and Composite Attribute – Solid line ellipses
  • Derived Attribute – Dotted line ellipses
  • Multi-Valued Attribute – Double-lined ellipses

Relationship Notations

Relationship notation uses diamonds, with a solid line diamond depicting a relationship between two attributes. You may also find double-lined diamonds, which signify the relationship between a weak entity and the strong entity that owns it.

Cardinality and Modality Notations

These lines show you the maximum times an instance in one entity set can relate to the instances of another set, making them crucial for denoting the relationships inside your database.

The endpoint of the line tells you everything you need to know about cardinality and ordinality. For example, a line that ends with three lines (two going diagonally) signifies a “many” cardinality, while a line that concludes with a small vertical line signifies a “one” cardinality. Modality comes into play if there’s a minimum number of instances for an entity type. For example, a person can have many phone numbers but must have at least one.

Steps to Create an ER Diagram in DBMS

With the various notations for an ER diagram in DBMS explained, you can follow these steps to draw your own diagram:

  • Identify Entities – Every tangible and intangible object that relates to your database is an entity that you need to identify and define.
  • Identify Attributes – Each entity has a set of attributes (students have names, ID numbers, birthdates, etc.) that you must define.
  • Identify Relationships – Ask yourself how each entity set fits together to identify the relationships that exist between them.
  • Assign Cardinality and Modality – If you have an instance from Entity A, how many instances does it relate to in Entity B? Is there a minimum to consider? Assign cardinalities and modalities to offer the answers.
  • Finalize Your Diagram – Take a final pass over the diagram to ensure all required entities are present, they have the appropriate attributes, and that all relationships are defined.

Examples of ER Diagrams in DBMS

Once you understand the basics of the ER model in DBMS, you’ll see how they can apply to multiple scenarios:

  • University Databases – A university database will have entities such as “Student,” “Teacher,” “Course,” and “Class.” Attributes depend on the entity, with the people-based entities having attributes including names, dates of birth, and ID numbers. Relationships vary (i.e., a student may only have one teacher but a single teacher may have several students).
  • Hospital Management Databases – Entities for this type of database include people (“Patients,” “Doctors,” and “Nurses”), as well as other tangibles, such as different hospital buildings and inventory. These databases can get very complex, with multiple relationships linking the various people involved to different buildings, treatment areas, and inventory.
  • E-Commerce Databases – People play an important role in the entities for e-commerce sites, too, because every site needs a list of customers. Those customers have payment details and order histories, which are potential entities or attributes. Product lists and available inventory are also factors.

Master the ER Model in DBMS

An ER diagram in DBMS can look like a complicated mass of shapes and lines at first, making them feel impenetrable to those new to databases. But once you get to grips with what each type of shape and line represents, they become crucial tools to help you outline your databases before you start developing them.

Application of what you’ve learned is the key to success with ER diagrams (and any other topic), so take what you’ve learned here and start experimenting. Consider real-world scenarios (such as those introduced above) and draw diagrams based on the entities you believe apply to those scenarios. Build up from there to figure out the attributes and relationships between entity sets and you’re well on your way to a good ER diagram.

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What Is Normalization in DBMS? A Comprehensive Overview
John Loewen
June 24, 2023

The larger your database, the higher the possibility of data repetition and inaccuracies that compromise the results you pull from the database. Normalization in DBMS exists to counteract those problems by helping you to create more uniform databases in which redundancies are less likely to occur.

Mastering normalization is a key skill in DBMS for the simple fact that an error-strewn database is of no use to an organization. For example, a retailer that has to deal with a database that has multiple entries for phone numbers and email addresses is a retailer that can’t see as effectively as one that has a simple route to the customer. Let’s look at normalization in DBMS and how it helps you to create a more organized database.

The Concept of Normalization

Grab a pack of playing cards and throw them onto the floor. Now, pick up the “Jack of Hearts.” It’s a tough task because the cards are strewn all over the place. Some are facing down and there’s no rhyme, reason, or pattern to how the cards lie, meaning you’re going to have to check every card individually to find the one you want.

That little experiment shows you how critical organization is, even with a small set of “data.” It also highlights the importance of normalization in DBMS. Through normalization, you implement organizational controls using a set of principles designed to achieve the following:

  • Eliminate redundancy – Lower (or eliminate) occurrences of data repeating across different tables, or inside individual tables, in your DBMS.
  • Minimize data anomalies – Better organization makes it easier to spot datasets that don’t fit the “norm,” meaning fewer anomalies.
  • Improve data integrity – More accurate data comes from normalization controls. Database users can feel more confident in their results because they know that the controls ensure integrity.

The Process of Normalization

If normalization in DBMS is all about organization, it stands to reason that they would be a set process to follow when normalizing your tables and database:

  1. Decompose your tables – Break every table down into its various parts, which may lead to you creating several tables out of one. Through decomposition, you separate different datasets, eliminate inconsistencies, and set the stage for creating relationships and dependencies between tables.
  2. Identify functional dependencies – An attribute in one table may be dependent on another to exist. For example, a “Customer ID” number in a retailer’s “Customer” table is functionally dependent on the “Customer Name” field because the ID can’t exist without the customer. Identifying these types of dependencies ensures you don’t end up with empty records (such as a record with a “Customer ID” and no customer attached to it).
  3. Apply normalization rules – Once you’re broken down your table and identified the functional dependencies, you apply relevant normalization rules. You’ll use Normal Forms to do this, with the six highlighted below each having its own rules, structures, and use cases.

Normal Forms in DBMS

There isn’t a “single” way to achieve normalization in DBMS because every database (and the tables it contains) is different. Instead, there are six normal forms you may use, with each having its own rules that you need to understand to figure out which to apply.

First Normal Form (1NF)

If a relation can’t contain multiple values, it’s in 1NF. In other words, each attribute in the table can only contain a single (called “atomic”) value.


If a retailer wants to store the details of its customers, it may have attributes in its table like “Customer Name,” “Phone Number,” and “Email Address.” By applying 1NF to this table, you ensure that the attributes that could contain multiple entries (“Phone Number” and “Email Address”) only contain one, making contacting that customer much simpler.

Second Normal Form (2NF)

A table that’s in 2NF is in 1NF, with the additional condition that none of its non-prime attributes depend on a subset of candidate keys within the table.


Let’s say an employer wants to create a table that contains information about an employee, the skills they have, and their age. An employee may have multiple skills, leading to multiple records for the same employee in the table, with each denoting a skill while the ID number and age of the employee repeat for each record.

In this table, you’ve achieved 1NF because each attribute has an atomic value. However, the employee’s age is dependent on the employee ID number. To achieve 2NF, you’d break this table down into two tables. The first will contain the employee’s ID number and age, with that ID number linking to a second table that lists each of the skills associated with the employee.

Third Normal Form (3NF)

In 3NF, the table you have must already be in 2NF form, with the added rule of removing the transitive functional dependency of the non-prime attribute of any super key. Transitive functional dependency occurs if the dependency is the result of a pair of functional dependencies. For example, the relationship between A and C is a transitive dependency if A depends on B, B depends on C, but B doesn’t depend on A.


Let’s say a school creates a “Students” table with the following attributes:

  • Student ID
  • Name
  • Zip Code
  • State
  • City
  • District

In this case, the “State,” “District,” and “City” attributes all depend on the “Zip Code” attribute. That “Zip” attribute depends on the “Student ID” attribute, making “State,” “District,” and “City” all transitively depending on “Student ID.”

To resolve this problem, you’d create a pair of tables – “Student” and “Student Zip.” The “Student” table contains the “Student ID,” “Name,” and “Zip Code” attributes, with that “Zip Code” attribute being the primary key of a “Student Zip” table that contains the rest of the attributes and links to the “Student” table.

Boyce-Codd Normal Form (BCNF)

Often referred to as 3.5NF, BCNF is a stricter version of 3NF. So, this normalization in DBMS rule occurs if your table is in 3NF, and for every functional dependence between two fields (i.e., A -> B), A is the super key of your table.


Sticking with the school example, every student in a school has multiple classes. The school has a table with the following fields:

  • Student ID
  • Nationality
  • Class
  • Class Type
  • Number of Students in Class

You have several functional dependencies here:

  • Student ID -> Nationality
  • Class -> Number of Students in Class, Class Type

As a result, both the “Student ID” and “Class” attributes are candidate keys but can’t serve as keys alone. To achieve BCNF normalization, you’d break the above table into three – “Student Nationality,” “Student Class,” and “Class Mapping,” allowing “Student ID” and “Class” to serve as primary keys in their own tables.

Fourth Normal Form (4NF)

In 4NF, the database must meet the requirements of BCNF, in addition to containing no more than a single multivalued dependency. It’s often used in academic circles, as there’s little use for 4NF elsewhere.


Let’s say a college has a table containing the following fields:

  • College Course
  • Lecturer
  • Recommended Book

Each of these attributes is independent of the others, meaning each can change without affecting the others. For example, the college could change the lecturer of a course without altering the recommended reading or the course’s name. As such, the existence of the course depends on both the “Lecturer” and “Recommended Book” attributes, creating a multivalued dependency. If a DBMS has more than one of these types of dependencies, it’s a candidate for 4NF normalization.

Fifth Normal Form (5NF)

If your table is in 4NF, has no join dependencies, and all joining is lossless, it’s in 5NF. Think of this as the final form when it comes to normalization in DBMS, as you’ve broken your table down so much that you’ve made redundancy impossible.


A college may have a table that tells them which lecturers teach certain subjects during which semesters, creating the following attributes:

  • Subject
  • Lecturer Name
  • Semester

Let’s say one of the lecturers teaches both “Physics” and “Math” for “Semester 1,” but doesn’t teach “Math” for Semester 2. That means you need to combine all of the fields in this table to get an accurate dataset, leading to redundancy. Add a third semester to the mix, especially if that semester has no defined courses or lecturers, and you have to join dependencies.

The 5NF solution is to break this table down into three tables:

  • Table 1 – Contains the “Semester” and “Subject” attributes to show which subjects are taught in each semester.
  • Table 2 – Contains the “Subject” and “Lecturer Name” attributes to show which lecturers teach a subject.
  • Table 3 – Contains the “Semester” and “Lecturer Name” attributes so you can see which lecturers teach during which semesters.

Benefits of Normalization in DBMS

With normalization in DBMS being so much work, you need to know the following benefits to show that it’s worth your effort:

  • Improved database efficiency
  • Better data consistency
  • Easier database maintenance
  • Simpler query processing
  • Better access controls, resulting in superior security

Limitations and Trade-Offs of Normalization

Normalization in DBMS does have some drawbacks, though these are trade-offs that you accept for the above benefits:

  • The larger your database gets, the more demands it places on system performance.
  • Breaking tables down leads to complexity.
  • You have to find a balance between normalization and denormalization to ensure your tables make sense.

Practical Tips for Mastering Normalization Techniques

Getting normalization in DBMS is hard, especially when you start feeling like you’re dividing tables into so many small tables that you’re losing track of the database. These tips help you apply normalization correctly:

  • Understand the database requirements – Your database exists for you to extract data from it, so knowing what you’ll need to extract indicates whether you need to normalize tables or not.
  • Document all functional dependencies – Every functional dependence that exists in your database makes the table in which it exists a candidate for normalization. Identify each dependency and document it so you know whether you need to break the table down.
  • Use software and tools – You’re not alone when poring through your database. There are plenty of tools available that help you to identify functional dependencies. Many make normalization suggestions, with some even being able to carry out those suggestions for you.
  • Review and refine – Every database evolves alongside its users, so continued refining is needed to identify new functional dependencies (and opportunities for normalization).
  • Collaborate with other professionals – A different set of eyes on a database may reveal dependencies and normalization opportunities that you don’t see.

Make Normalization Your New Norm

Normalization may seem needlessly complex, but it serves the crucial role of making the data you extract from your database more refined, accurate, and free of repetition. Mastering normalization in DBMS puts you in the perfect position to create the complex databases many organizations need in a Big Data world. Experiment with the different “normal forms” described in this article as each application of the techniques (even for simple tables) helps you get to grips with normalization.

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