Have you ever played chess or checkers against a computer? If you have, news flash – you’ve watched artificial intelligence at work. But what if the computer could get better at the game on its own just by playing more and analyzing its mistakes? That’s the power of machine learning, a type of AI that lets computers learn and improve from experience.

In fact, machine learning is becoming increasingly important in our daily lives. According to a report by Statista, revenues from the global market for AI software are expected to reach 126 billion by 2025, up from just 10.1 billion in 2018. From personalized recommendations on Netflix to self-driving cars, machine learning is powering some of the most innovative and exciting technologies of our time.

But how does it all work? In this article, we’ll dive into the concepts of machine learning and explore how it’s changing the way we interact with technology.

What is Machine Learning?

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI) that focuses on building algorithms that can learn from data and then make predictions or decisions and recognize patterns. Essentially, it’s all about creating computer programs that can adapt and improve on their own without being explicitly programmed for every possible scenario.

It’s like teaching a computer to see the world through a different lens. From the data, the machine identifies patterns and relationships within it. Based on these patterns, the algorithm can make predictions or decisions about new data it hasn’t seen before.

Because of these qualities, machine learning has plenty of practical applications. We can train computers to make decisions, recognize speech, and even generate art. We can use it in fraud detection in financial transactions or to improve healthcare outcomes through personalized medicine.

Machine learning also plays a large role in fields like computer vision, natural language processing, and robotics, as they require the ability to recognize patterns and make predictions to complete various tasks.

Concepts of Machine Learning

Machine learning might seem magical, but the concepts of machine learning are complex, with many layers of algorithms and techniques working together to get to an end goal.

From supervised and unsupervised learning to deep neural networks and reinforcement learning, there are many base concepts to understand before diving into the world of machine learning. Get ready to explore some machine learning basics!

Supervised Learning

Supervised learning involves training the algorithm to recognize patterns or make predictions using labeled data.

  • Classification: Classification is quite straightforward, evident by its name. Its goal is to predict which category or class new data belongs to based on existing data.
  • Logistic Regression: Logistic regression aims to predict a binary outcome (i.e., yes or no) based on one or more input variables.
  • Support Vector Machines: Support Vector Machines (SVMs) find the best way to separate data points into different categories or classes based on their features or attributes.
  • Decision Trees: Decision trees make decisions by dividing data into smaller and smaller subsets from a number of binary decisions. You can think of it like a game of 20 questions where you’re narrowing things down.
  • Naive Bayes: Naive Bayes uses Bayes’ theorem to predict how likely it is to end up with a certain result when different input variables are present or absent.


Regression is a type of machine learning that helps us predict numerical values, like prices or temperatures, based on other data that we have. It looks for patterns in the data to create a mathematical model that can estimate the value we are looking for.

  • Linear Regression: Linear regression helps us predict numerical values by fitting a straight line to the data.
  • Polynomial Regression: Polynomial regression is similar to linear regression, but instead of fitting a straight line to the data, it fits a curved line (a polynomial) to capture more complex relationships between the variables. Linear regression might be used to predict someone’s salary based on their years of experience, while polynomial regression could be used to predict how fast a car will go based on its engine size.
  • Support Vector Regression: Support vector regression finds the best fitting line to the data while minimizing errors and avoiding overfitting (becoming too attuned to the existing data).
  • Decision Tree Regression: Decision tree regression uses a tree-like template to make predictions out of a series of decision rules, where each branch represents a decision, and each leaf node represents a prediction.

Unsupervised Learning

Unsupervised learning is where the computer algorithm is given a bunch of data with no labels and has to find patterns or groupings on its own, allowing for discovering hidden insights and relationships.

  • Clustering: Clustering groups similar data points together based on their features.
  • K-Means: K-Means is a popular clustering algorithm that separates the data into a predetermined number of clusters by finding the average of each group.
  • Hierarchical Clustering: Hierarchical clustering is another way of grouping that creates a hierarchy of clusters by either merging smaller clusters into larger ones (agglomerative) or dividing larger clusters into smaller ones (divisive).
  • Expectation Maximization: Expectation maximization is quite self-explanatory. It’s a way to find patterns in data that aren’t clearly grouped together by guessing what might be there and refining the guesses over time.
  • Association Rule Learning: Association Rule Learning looks to find interesting connections between things in large sets of data, like discovering that people who buy plant pots often also buy juice.
  • Apriori: Apriori is an algorithm for association rule learning that finds frequent itemsets (groups of items that appear together often) and makes rules that describe the relationships between them.
  • Eclat: Eclat is similar to apriori, but it works by first finding which things appear together most often and then finding frequent itemsets out of those. It’s a method that works better for larger datasets.

Reinforcement Learning

Reinforcement learning is like teaching a computer to play a game by letting it try different actions and rewarding it when it does something good so it learns how to maximize its score over time.

  • Q-Learning: Q-Learning helps computers learn how to take actions in an environment by assigning values to each possible action and using those values to make decisions.
  • SARSA: SARSA is similar to Q-Learning but takes into account the current state of the environment, making it more useful in situations where actions have immediate consequences.
  • DDPG (Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient): DDPG is a more advanced type of reinforcement learning that uses neural networks to learn policies for continuous control tasks, like robotic movement, by mapping what it sees to its next action.

Deep Learning Algorithms

Deep Learning is a powerful type of machine learning that’s inspired by how the human brain works, using artificial neural networks to learn and make decisions from vast amounts of data.

It’s more complex than other types of machine learning because it involves many layers of connections that can learn to recognize complex patterns and relationships in data.

  • Neural Networks: Neural networks mimic the structure and function of the human brain, allowing them to learn from and make predictions about complex data.
  • Convolutional Neural Networks: Convolutional neural networks are particularly good at image recognition, using specialized layers to detect features like edges, textures, and shapes.
  • Recurrent Neural Networks: Recurrent neural networks are known to be good at processing sequential data, like language or music, by keeping track of previous inputs and using that information to make better predictions.
  • Generative Adversarial Networks: Generative adversarial networks can generate new, original data by pitting two networks against each other. One tries to create fake data, and the other tries to spot the fakes until the generator network gets really good at making convincing fakes.


As we’ve learned, machine learning is a powerful tool that can help computers learn from data and make predictions, recognize patterns, and even create new things.

With basic concepts like supervised and unsupervised learning, regression and clustering, and advanced techniques like deep learning and neural networks, the possibilities for what we can achieve with machine learning are endless.

So whether you’re new to the subject or deeper down the iceberg, there’s always something new to learn in the exciting field of machine learning!

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New OPIT Degrees launching (soon)!
Riccardo Ocleppo
Riccardo Ocleppo
Nov 29, 2023 2 min read


Soon, we will be launching four new Degrees for AY24-25 at OPIT – Open Institute of Technology
I want to offer a behind-the-scenes look at the Product Definition process that has shaped these upcoming programs.

🚀 Phase 1: Discovery (Late May – End of July)

Our journey began with intensive brainstorming sessions with OPIT’s Academic Board (Francesco Profumo, Lorenzo Livi, Alexiei Dingli, Andrea Pescino, Rosario Maccarrone) . We also conducted 50+ interviews with tech and digital entrepreneurs (both from startups and established firms), academics and students. Finally, we deep-dived into the “Future of Jobs 2023” report by the World Economic Forum and other valuable research.

🔍 Phase 2: Selection – Crafting Our Roadmap (July – August)

Our focus? Introducing new degrees addressing critical workforce shortages and upskilling/reskilling needs for the next 5-10 years, promising significant societal impact and a broad market reach.
Our decision? To channel our energies on full BScs and MScs, and steer away from shorter courses or corporate-focused offerings. This aligns perfectly with our core mission.

💡 Focus Areas Unveiled!

We’re thrilled to concentrate on pivotal fields like:

  • Cybersecurity
  • Advanced AI
  • Digital Business
  • Metaverse & Gaming
  • Cloud Computing (less “glamorous”, but market demand is undeniable).

🎓 Phase 3: Definition – Shaping the Degrees (August – November)

With an expert in each of the above fields, and with the strong collaboration of our Academic Director, Prof. Lorenzo Livi , we embarked on a rigorous “drill-down process”. Our goal? To meld modern theoretical knowledge with cutting-edge competencies and skills. This phase included interviewing over 60+ top academics, industry professionals, and students and get valuable, program-specific, insights from our Marketing department.

🌟 Phase 4: Accreditation and Launch – The Final Stretch

We’re currently in the accreditation process, gearing up for the launch. The focus is now shifting towards marketing, working closely with Greta Maiocchi and her Marketing and Admissions team. Together, we’re translating our new academic offering into a compelling value proposition for the market.

Stay tuned for more updates!

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Five Reasons to Study Online at OPIT
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
Nov 29, 2023 9 min read

Far from being a temporary educational measure that came into its own during the pandemic, online education is providing students from all over the world with new ways to learn. That’s proven by statistics from Oxford Learning College, which point out that over 100 million students are now enrolled in some form of online course.

The demand for these types of courses clearly exists.

In fact, the same organization indicates that educational facilities that introduce online learning see a 42% increase in income – on average – suggesting that the demand is there.

Enter the Open Institute of Technology (OPIT).

Delivering three online courses – a Bachelor’s degree in computer science and two Master’s degrees – with more to come, OPIT is positioning itself as a leader in the online education space. But why is that? After all, many institutions are making the jump to e-learning, so what separates OPIT from the pack?

Here, you’ll discover the answers as you delve into the five reasons why you should trust OPIT for your online education.

Reason 1 – A Practical Approach

OPIT focuses on computer science education – a field in which theory often dominates the educational landscape. The organization’s Rector, Professor Francesco Profumo, makes this clear in a press release from June 2023. He points to a misalignment between what educators are teaching computer science students and what the labor market actually needs from those students as a key problem.

“The starting point is the awareness of the misalignment,” he says when talking about how OPIT structures its online courses. “That so-called mismatch is generated by too much theory and too little practical approach.” In other words, students in many classes spend far too much time learning the “hows” and “whys” behind computerized systems without actually getting their hands dirty with real work that gives them practical experience in using those systems.

OPIT takes a different approach.

It has developed a didactic approach that focuses far more on the practical element than other courses. That approach is delivered through a combination of classroom sessions – such as live lessons and masterclasses – and practical work offered through quizzes and exercises that mimic real-world situations.

An OPIT student doesn’t simply learn how computers work. They put their skills into practice through direct programming and application, equipping them with skills that are extremely attractive to major employers in the tech field and beyond.

Reason 2 – Flexibility Combined With Support

Flexibility in how you study is one of the main benefits of any online course.

You control when you learn and how you do it, creating an environment that’s beneficial to your education rather than being forced into a classroom setting with which you may not feel comfortable. This is hardly new ground. Any online educational platform can claim that it offers “flexibility” simply because it provides courses via the web.

Where OPIT differs is that it combines that flexibility with unparalleled support bolstered by the experiences of teachers employed from all over the world. The founder and director of OPIT, Riccardo Ocleppo, sheds more light on this difference in approach when he says, “We believe that education, even if it takes place physically at a distance, must guarantee closeness on all other aspects.” That closeness starts with the support offered to students throughout their entire study period.

Tutors are accessible to students at all times. Plus, every participant benefits from weekly professor interactions, ensuring they aren’t left feeling stuck on an educational “island” and have to rely solely on themselves for their education. OPIT further counters the potential isolation that comes with online learning with a Student Support team to guide students through any difficulties they may have with their courses.

In this focus on support, OPIT showcases one of its main differences from other online platforms.

You don’t simply receive course material before being told to “get on with it.” You have the flexibility to learn at your own pace while also having a support structure that serves as a foundation for that learning.

Reason 3 – OPIT Can Adapt to Change Quickly

The field of computer science is constantly evolving.

In the 2020s alone, we’ve seen the rise of generative AI – spurred on by the explosive success of services like ChatGPT – and how those new technologies have changed the way that people use computers.

Riccardo Ocleppo has seen the impact that these constant evolutions have had on students. Before founding OPIT, he was an entrepreneur who received first-hand experience of the fact that many traditional educational institutions struggle to adapt to change.

“Traditional educational institutions are very slow to adapt to this wave of new technologies and trends within the educational sector,” he says. He points to computer science as a particular issue, highlighting the example of a board in Italy of which he is a member. That board – packed with some of the country’s most prestigious tech universities – spent three years eventually deciding to add just two modules on new and emerging technologies to their study programs.

That left Ocleppo feeling frustrated.

When he founded OPIT, he did so intending to make it an adaptable institution in which courses were informed by what the industry needs. Every member of its faculty is not only a superb teacher but also somebody with experience working in industry. Speaking of industry, OPIT collaborates with major companies in the tech field to ensure its courses deliver the skills that those organizations expect from new candidates.

This confronts frustration on both sides. For companies, an OPIT graduate is one for which they don’t need to bridge a “skill gap” between what they’ve learned and what the company needs. For you, as a student, it means that you’re developing skills that make you a more desirable prospect once you have your degree.

Reason 4 – OPIT Delivers Tier One Education

Despite their popularity, online courses can still carry a stigma of not being “legitimate” in the face of more traditional degrees. Ocleppo is acutely aware of this fact, which is why he’s quick to point out that OPIT always aims to deliver a Tier One education in the computer science field.

“That means putting together the best professors who create superb learning material, all brought together with a teaching methodology that leverages the advancements made in online teaching,” he says.

OPIT’s degrees are all accredited by the European Union to support this approach, ensuring they carry as much weight as any other European degree. It’s accredited by both the European Qualification Framework (EQF) and the Malta Qualification Framework (MQF), with all of its courses having full legal value throughout Europe.

It’s also here where we see OPIT’s approach to practicality come into play via its course structuring.

Take its Bachelor’s degree in computer science as an example.

Yes, that course starts with a focus on theoretical and foundational knowledge. Building a computer and understanding how the device processes instructions is vital information from a programming perspective. But once those foundations are in place, OPIT delivers on its promises of covering the most current topics in the field.

Machine learning, cloud computing, data science, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity – all valuable to employers – are taught at the undergraduate level. Students benefit from a broader approach to computer science than most institutions are capable of, rather than bogging them down in theory that serves little practical purpose.

Reason 5 – The Learning Experience

Let’s wrap up by honing in on what it’s actually like for students to learn with OPIT.

After all, as Ocleppo points out, one of the main challenges with online education is that students rarely have defined checkpoints to follow. They can start feeling lost in the process, confronted with a metaphorical ocean of information they need to learn, all in service of one big exam at the end.

Alternatively, some students may feel the temptation to not work through the materials thoroughly, focusing instead on passing a final exam. The result is that those students may pass, but they do so without a full grasp of what they’ve learned – a nightmare for employers who already have skill gaps to handle.

OPIT confronts both challenges by focusing on a continuous learning methodology. Assessments – primarily practical – take place throughout the course, serving as much-needed checkpoints for evaluating progress. When combined with the previously mentioned support that OPIT offers, this approach has led to courses that are created from scratch in service of the student’s actual needs.

Choose OPIT for Your Computer Science Education

At OPIT, the focus lies as much on helping students to achieve their dream careers as it does on teaching them. All courses are built collaboratively. With a dedicated faculty combined with major industry players, such as Google and Microsoft, it delivers materials that bridge the skill gap seen in the computer science field today.

There’s also more to come.

Beyond the three degrees OPIT offers, the institution plans to add more. Game development, data science, and cloud computing, to name a few, will receive dedicated degrees in the coming months, accentuating OPIT’s dedication to adapting to the continuous evolution of the computer science industry. Discover OPIT today – your journey into computing starts with the best online education institution available.

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