An ER diagram in DBMS (database management systems) is a lot like a storyboard for an animated TV show – it’s a collection of diagrams that show how everything fits together. Where a storyboard demonstrates the flow from one scene to the next, an ER diagram highlights the components of your databases and the relationships they share.

Understanding the ER model in DBMS is the first step to getting to grips with basic database software (like Microsoft Access) and more complex database-centric programming languages, such as SQL. This article explores ER diagrams in detail.

ER Model in DBMS

An ER diagram in DBMS is a tangible representation of the tables in a database, the relationships between each of those tables, and the attributes of each table. These diagrams feature three core components:

  • Entities – Represented by rectangles in the diagram, entities are objects or concepts used throughout your database.
  • Attributes – These are the properties that each entity possesses. ER diagrams use ellipses to represent attributes, with the attributes themselves tending to be the fields in a table. For example, an entity for students in a school’s internal database may have attributes for student names, birthdays, and unique identification numbers.
  • Relationships – No entity in an ER diagram is an island, as each is linked to at least one other. These relationships can take multiple forms, with said relationships dictating the flow of information through the database.

Mapping out your proposed database using the ER model is essential because it gives you a visual representation of how the database works before you start coding or creating. Think of it like the blueprint you’d use to build a house, with that blueprint telling you where you need to lay every brick and fit every door.

Entities in DBMS

An Entity in DBMS tends to represent a real-life thing (like the students mentioned previously) that you can identify with certain types of data. Each entity is distinguishable from the others in your database, meaning you won’t have multiple entities listing student details.

Entities come in two flavors:

  • Tangible Entities – These are physical things that exist in the real world, such as a person, vehicle, or building.
  • Intangible Entities – If you can see and feel an entity, it’s intangible. Bank accounts are good examples. We know they exist (and have data attributed to them) but we can’t physically touch them.

There are also different entity strengths to consider:

  • Strong Entities – A strong entity is represented using a rectangle and will have at least one key attribute attached to it that allows you to identify it uniquely. In the student example we’ve already shared, a student’s ID number could be a unique identifier, creating a key attribute that leads to the “Student” entity being strong.
  • Weak Entities – Weak entities have no unique identifiers, meaning you can’t use them alone. Represented using double-outlined rectangles, these entities rely on the existence of strong entities to exist themselves. Think of it like the relationship between parent and child. A child can’t exist without a parent, in the same way that a weak entity can’t exist without a strong entity.

Once you’ve established what your entities are, you’ll gather each specific type of entity into an entity set. This set is like a table that contains the data for each entity in a uniform manner. Returning to the student example, any entity that has a student ID number, name, and birthdate, may be placed into an overarching “Student” entity set. They’re basically containers for specific entity types.

Attributes in DBMS

Every entity you establish has attributes attached to it, as you’ve already seen with the student example used previously. These attributes offer details about various aspects of the entity and come in four types:

  • Simple Attributes – A simple attribute is any attribute that you can’t break down into further categories. A student ID number is a good example, as this isn’t something you can expand upon.
  • Composite Attributes – Composite attributes are those that may have other attributes attached to them. If “Name” is one of your attributes, its composites could be “First Name,” “Surname,” “Maiden Name,” and “Nickname.”
  • Derived Attributes – If you can derive an attribute from another attribute, it falls into this category. For instance, you can use a student’s date of birth to derive their age and grade level. These attributes have dotted ellipses surrounding them.
  • Multi-valued Attributes – Represented by dual-ellipses, these attributes cover anything that can have multiple values. Phone numbers are good examples, as people can have several cell phone or landline numbers.

Attributes are important when creating an ER model in DBMS because they show you what types of data you’ll use to populate your entities.

Relationships in DBMS

As your database becomes more complex, you’ll create several entities and entity sets, with each having relationships with others. You represent these relationships using lines, creating a network of entities with line-based descriptions telling you how information flows between them.

There are three types of relationships for an ER diagram in DBMS:

  • One-to-One Relationships – You’ll use this relationship when one entity can only have one of another entity. For example, if a school issues ID cards to its students, it’s likely that each student can only have one card. Thus, you have a one-to-one relationship between the student and ID card entities.
  • One-to-Many Relationships – This relationship type is for when one entity can have several of another entity, but the relationship doesn’t work in reverse. Bank accounts are a good example, as a customer can have several bank accounts, but each account is only accessible to one customer.
  • Many-to-Many Relationships – You use these relationships to denote when two entities can have several of each other. Returning to the student example, a student will have multiple classes, with each class containing several students, creating a many-to-many relationship.

These relationships are further broken down into “relationship sets,” which bring together all of the entities that participate in the same type of relationship. These sets have three varieties:

  • Unary – Only one entity participates in the relationship.
  • Binary – Two entities are in the relationship, such as the student and course example mentioned earlier.
  • n-ary – Multiple entities participate in the relationship, with “n” being the number of entities.

Your ER diagram in DBMS needs relationships to show how each entity set relates to (and interacts with) the others in your diagram.

ER Diagram Notations

You’ll use various forms of notation to denote the entities, attributes, relationships, and the cardinality of those relationships in your ER diagram.

Entity Notations

Entities are denoted using rectangles around a word or phrase, with a solid rectangle meaning a strong entity and a double-outlined rectangle denoting a weak entity.

Attribute Notations

Ellipses are the shapes of choice for attributes, with the following uses for each attribute type:

  • Simple and Composite Attribute – Solid line ellipses
  • Derived Attribute – Dotted line ellipses
  • Multi-Valued Attribute – Double-lined ellipses

Relationship Notations

Relationship notation uses diamonds, with a solid line diamond depicting a relationship between two attributes. You may also find double-lined diamonds, which signify the relationship between a weak entity and the strong entity that owns it.

Cardinality and Modality Notations

These lines show you the maximum times an instance in one entity set can relate to the instances of another set, making them crucial for denoting the relationships inside your database.

The endpoint of the line tells you everything you need to know about cardinality and ordinality. For example, a line that ends with three lines (two going diagonally) signifies a “many” cardinality, while a line that concludes with a small vertical line signifies a “one” cardinality. Modality comes into play if there’s a minimum number of instances for an entity type. For example, a person can have many phone numbers but must have at least one.

Steps to Create an ER Diagram in DBMS

With the various notations for an ER diagram in DBMS explained, you can follow these steps to draw your own diagram:

  • Identify Entities – Every tangible and intangible object that relates to your database is an entity that you need to identify and define.
  • Identify Attributes – Each entity has a set of attributes (students have names, ID numbers, birthdates, etc.) that you must define.
  • Identify Relationships – Ask yourself how each entity set fits together to identify the relationships that exist between them.
  • Assign Cardinality and Modality – If you have an instance from Entity A, how many instances does it relate to in Entity B? Is there a minimum to consider? Assign cardinalities and modalities to offer the answers.
  • Finalize Your Diagram – Take a final pass over the diagram to ensure all required entities are present, they have the appropriate attributes, and that all relationships are defined.

Examples of ER Diagrams in DBMS

Once you understand the basics of the ER model in DBMS, you’ll see how they can apply to multiple scenarios:

  • University Databases – A university database will have entities such as “Student,” “Teacher,” “Course,” and “Class.” Attributes depend on the entity, with the people-based entities having attributes including names, dates of birth, and ID numbers. Relationships vary (i.e., a student may only have one teacher but a single teacher may have several students).
  • Hospital Management Databases – Entities for this type of database include people (“Patients,” “Doctors,” and “Nurses”), as well as other tangibles, such as different hospital buildings and inventory. These databases can get very complex, with multiple relationships linking the various people involved to different buildings, treatment areas, and inventory.
  • E-Commerce Databases – People play an important role in the entities for e-commerce sites, too, because every site needs a list of customers. Those customers have payment details and order histories, which are potential entities or attributes. Product lists and available inventory are also factors.

Master the ER Model in DBMS

An ER diagram in DBMS can look like a complicated mass of shapes and lines at first, making them feel impenetrable to those new to databases. But once you get to grips with what each type of shape and line represents, they become crucial tools to help you outline your databases before you start developing them.

Application of what you’ve learned is the key to success with ER diagrams (and any other topic), so take what you’ve learned here and start experimenting. Consider real-world scenarios (such as those introduced above) and draw diagrams based on the entities you believe apply to those scenarios. Build up from there to figure out the attributes and relationships between entity sets and you’re well on your way to a good ER diagram.

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New OPIT Degrees launching (soon)!
Riccardo Ocleppo
Nov 29, 2023 2 min read


Soon, we will be launching four new Degrees for AY24-25 at OPIT – Open Institute of Technology
I want to offer a behind-the-scenes look at the Product Definition process that has shaped these upcoming programs.

🚀 Phase 1: Discovery (Late May – End of July)

Our journey began with intensive brainstorming sessions with OPIT’s Academic Board (Francesco Profumo, Lorenzo Livi, Alexiei Dingli, Andrea Pescino, Rosario Maccarrone) . We also conducted 50+ interviews with tech and digital entrepreneurs (both from startups and established firms), academics and students. Finally, we deep-dived into the “Future of Jobs 2023” report by the World Economic Forum and other valuable research.

🔍 Phase 2: Selection – Crafting Our Roadmap (July – August)

Our focus? Introducing new degrees addressing critical workforce shortages and upskilling/reskilling needs for the next 5-10 years, promising significant societal impact and a broad market reach.
Our decision? To channel our energies on full BScs and MScs, and steer away from shorter courses or corporate-focused offerings. This aligns perfectly with our core mission.

💡 Focus Areas Unveiled!

We’re thrilled to concentrate on pivotal fields like:

  • Cybersecurity
  • Advanced AI
  • Digital Business
  • Metaverse & Gaming
  • Cloud Computing (less “glamorous”, but market demand is undeniable).

🎓 Phase 3: Definition – Shaping the Degrees (August – November)

With an expert in each of the above fields, and with the strong collaboration of our Academic Director, Prof. Lorenzo Livi , we embarked on a rigorous “drill-down process”. Our goal? To meld modern theoretical knowledge with cutting-edge competencies and skills. This phase included interviewing over 60+ top academics, industry professionals, and students and get valuable, program-specific, insights from our Marketing department.

🌟 Phase 4: Accreditation and Launch – The Final Stretch

We’re currently in the accreditation process, gearing up for the launch. The focus is now shifting towards marketing, working closely with Greta Maiocchi and her Marketing and Admissions team. Together, we’re translating our new academic offering into a compelling value proposition for the market.

Stay tuned for more updates!

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Five Reasons to Study Online at OPIT
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
Nov 29, 2023 9 min read

Far from being a temporary educational measure that came into its own during the pandemic, online education is providing students from all over the world with new ways to learn. That’s proven by statistics from Oxford Learning College, which point out that over 100 million students are now enrolled in some form of online course.

The demand for these types of courses clearly exists.

In fact, the same organization indicates that educational facilities that introduce online learning see a 42% increase in income – on average – suggesting that the demand is there.

Enter the Open Institute of Technology (OPIT).

Delivering three online courses – a Bachelor’s degree in computer science and two Master’s degrees – with more to come, OPIT is positioning itself as a leader in the online education space. But why is that? After all, many institutions are making the jump to e-learning, so what separates OPIT from the pack?

Here, you’ll discover the answers as you delve into the five reasons why you should trust OPIT for your online education.

Reason 1 – A Practical Approach

OPIT focuses on computer science education – a field in which theory often dominates the educational landscape. The organization’s Rector, Professor Francesco Profumo, makes this clear in a press release from June 2023. He points to a misalignment between what educators are teaching computer science students and what the labor market actually needs from those students as a key problem.

“The starting point is the awareness of the misalignment,” he says when talking about how OPIT structures its online courses. “That so-called mismatch is generated by too much theory and too little practical approach.” In other words, students in many classes spend far too much time learning the “hows” and “whys” behind computerized systems without actually getting their hands dirty with real work that gives them practical experience in using those systems.

OPIT takes a different approach.

It has developed a didactic approach that focuses far more on the practical element than other courses. That approach is delivered through a combination of classroom sessions – such as live lessons and masterclasses – and practical work offered through quizzes and exercises that mimic real-world situations.

An OPIT student doesn’t simply learn how computers work. They put their skills into practice through direct programming and application, equipping them with skills that are extremely attractive to major employers in the tech field and beyond.

Reason 2 – Flexibility Combined With Support

Flexibility in how you study is one of the main benefits of any online course.

You control when you learn and how you do it, creating an environment that’s beneficial to your education rather than being forced into a classroom setting with which you may not feel comfortable. This is hardly new ground. Any online educational platform can claim that it offers “flexibility” simply because it provides courses via the web.

Where OPIT differs is that it combines that flexibility with unparalleled support bolstered by the experiences of teachers employed from all over the world. The founder and director of OPIT, Riccardo Ocleppo, sheds more light on this difference in approach when he says, “We believe that education, even if it takes place physically at a distance, must guarantee closeness on all other aspects.” That closeness starts with the support offered to students throughout their entire study period.

Tutors are accessible to students at all times. Plus, every participant benefits from weekly professor interactions, ensuring they aren’t left feeling stuck on an educational “island” and have to rely solely on themselves for their education. OPIT further counters the potential isolation that comes with online learning with a Student Support team to guide students through any difficulties they may have with their courses.

In this focus on support, OPIT showcases one of its main differences from other online platforms.

You don’t simply receive course material before being told to “get on with it.” You have the flexibility to learn at your own pace while also having a support structure that serves as a foundation for that learning.

Reason 3 – OPIT Can Adapt to Change Quickly

The field of computer science is constantly evolving.

In the 2020s alone, we’ve seen the rise of generative AI – spurred on by the explosive success of services like ChatGPT – and how those new technologies have changed the way that people use computers.

Riccardo Ocleppo has seen the impact that these constant evolutions have had on students. Before founding OPIT, he was an entrepreneur who received first-hand experience of the fact that many traditional educational institutions struggle to adapt to change.

“Traditional educational institutions are very slow to adapt to this wave of new technologies and trends within the educational sector,” he says. He points to computer science as a particular issue, highlighting the example of a board in Italy of which he is a member. That board – packed with some of the country’s most prestigious tech universities – spent three years eventually deciding to add just two modules on new and emerging technologies to their study programs.

That left Ocleppo feeling frustrated.

When he founded OPIT, he did so intending to make it an adaptable institution in which courses were informed by what the industry needs. Every member of its faculty is not only a superb teacher but also somebody with experience working in industry. Speaking of industry, OPIT collaborates with major companies in the tech field to ensure its courses deliver the skills that those organizations expect from new candidates.

This confronts frustration on both sides. For companies, an OPIT graduate is one for which they don’t need to bridge a “skill gap” between what they’ve learned and what the company needs. For you, as a student, it means that you’re developing skills that make you a more desirable prospect once you have your degree.

Reason 4 – OPIT Delivers Tier One Education

Despite their popularity, online courses can still carry a stigma of not being “legitimate” in the face of more traditional degrees. Ocleppo is acutely aware of this fact, which is why he’s quick to point out that OPIT always aims to deliver a Tier One education in the computer science field.

“That means putting together the best professors who create superb learning material, all brought together with a teaching methodology that leverages the advancements made in online teaching,” he says.

OPIT’s degrees are all accredited by the European Union to support this approach, ensuring they carry as much weight as any other European degree. It’s accredited by both the European Qualification Framework (EQF) and the Malta Qualification Framework (MQF), with all of its courses having full legal value throughout Europe.

It’s also here where we see OPIT’s approach to practicality come into play via its course structuring.

Take its Bachelor’s degree in computer science as an example.

Yes, that course starts with a focus on theoretical and foundational knowledge. Building a computer and understanding how the device processes instructions is vital information from a programming perspective. But once those foundations are in place, OPIT delivers on its promises of covering the most current topics in the field.

Machine learning, cloud computing, data science, artificial intelligence, and cybersecurity – all valuable to employers – are taught at the undergraduate level. Students benefit from a broader approach to computer science than most institutions are capable of, rather than bogging them down in theory that serves little practical purpose.

Reason 5 – The Learning Experience

Let’s wrap up by honing in on what it’s actually like for students to learn with OPIT.

After all, as Ocleppo points out, one of the main challenges with online education is that students rarely have defined checkpoints to follow. They can start feeling lost in the process, confronted with a metaphorical ocean of information they need to learn, all in service of one big exam at the end.

Alternatively, some students may feel the temptation to not work through the materials thoroughly, focusing instead on passing a final exam. The result is that those students may pass, but they do so without a full grasp of what they’ve learned – a nightmare for employers who already have skill gaps to handle.

OPIT confronts both challenges by focusing on a continuous learning methodology. Assessments – primarily practical – take place throughout the course, serving as much-needed checkpoints for evaluating progress. When combined with the previously mentioned support that OPIT offers, this approach has led to courses that are created from scratch in service of the student’s actual needs.

Choose OPIT for Your Computer Science Education

At OPIT, the focus lies as much on helping students to achieve their dream careers as it does on teaching them. All courses are built collaboratively. With a dedicated faculty combined with major industry players, such as Google and Microsoft, it delivers materials that bridge the skill gap seen in the computer science field today.

There’s also more to come.

Beyond the three degrees OPIT offers, the institution plans to add more. Game development, data science, and cloud computing, to name a few, will receive dedicated degrees in the coming months, accentuating OPIT’s dedication to adapting to the continuous evolution of the computer science industry. Discover OPIT today – your journey into computing starts with the best online education institution available.

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