Thanks to many technological marvels of our era, we’ve moved from writing important documents using pen and paper to storing them digitally.

Database systems emerged as the amount and complexity of information we need to keep have increased significantly in the last decades. They represent virtual warehouses for storing documents. Database management systems (DBMS) and relational database management systems (RDBMS) were born out of a burning need to easily control, organize, and edit databases.

Both DBMS and RDBMS represent programs for managing databases. But besides the one letter in the acronym, the two terms differ in several important aspects.

Here, we’ll outline the difference between DBMS and RDBMS, help you learn the ins and outs of both, and choose the most appropriate one.

Definition of DBMS (Database Management Systems)

While working for General Electric during the 1960s, Charles W. Bachman recognized the importance of proper document management and found that the solutions available at the time weren’t good enough. He did his research and came up with a database management system, a program that made storing, editing, and retrieving files a breeze. Unknowingly, Bachman revolutionized the industry and offered the world a convenient database management solution with amazing properties.

Key Features

Over the years, DBMSs have become powerful beasts that allow you to enhance performance and efficiency, save time, and handle huge amounts of data with ease.

One of the key features of DBMSs is that they store information as files in one of two forms: hierarchical or navigational. When managing data, users can use one of several manipulation functions the systems offer:

  • Inserting data
  • Deleting data
  • Updating data

DBMSs are simple structures ideal for smaller companies that don’t deal with huge amounts of data. Only a single user can handle information, which can be a deal-breaker for larger entities.

Although fairly simple, DBMSs bring a lot to the table. They allow you to access, edit, and share data in the blink of an eye. Moreover, DBMSs let you unify your team and have accurate and reliable information on the record, ensuring nobody is left out. They also help you stay compliant with different security and privacy regulations and lower the risk of violations. Finally, having an efficient database management system leads to wiser decision-making that can ultimately save you a lot of time and money.

Examples of Popular DBMS Software

When DBMSs were just becoming a thing, you had software like Clipper and FoxPro. Today, the most popular (and simplest) examples of DBMS software are XML, Windows Registry, and file systems.

Definition of RDBMS (Relational Database Management Systems)

Not long after DBMS came into being, people recognized the need to keep data in the form of tables. They figured storing info in rows (tuples) and columns (attributes) allows a clearer view and easier navigation and information retrieval. This idea led to the birth of relational database management systems (RDBMS) in the 1970s.

Key Features

As mentioned, the only way RDBMSs store information is in the form of tables. Many love this feature because it makes organizing and classifying data according to different criteria a piece of cake. Many companies that use RDBMSs utilize multiple tables to store their data, and sometimes, the information in them can overlap. Fortunately, RDBMSs allow relating data from various tables to one another (hence the name). Thanks to this, you’ll have no trouble adding the necessary info in the right tables and moving it around as necessary.

Since you can relate different pieces of information from your tables to each other, you can achieve normalization. However, normalization isn’t the process of making your table normal. It’s a way of organizing information to remove redundancy and enhance data integrity.

In this technological day and age, we see data growing exponentially. If you’re working with RDBMSs, there’s no need to be concerned. The systems can handle vast amounts of information and offer exceptional speed and total control. Best of all, multiple users can access RDBMSs at a time and enhance your team’s efficiency, productivity, and collaboration.

Simply put, an RDBMS is a more advanced, powerful, and versatile version of DBMS. It offers speed, plenty of convenient features, and ease of use.

Examples of Popular RDBMS Software

As more and more companies recognize the advantages of using RDBMS, the availability of software grows by the day. Those who have tried several options agree that Oracle and MySQL are among the best choices.

Key Differences Between DBMS and RDBMS

Now that you’ve learned more about DBMS and RDBMS, you probably have an idea of the most significant differences between them. Here, we’ll summarize the key DBMS vs. RDBMS differences.

Data Storage and Organization

The first DBMS and RDBMS difference we’ll analyze is the way in which the systems store and organize information. With DBMS, data is stored and organized as files. This system uses either a hierarchical or navigational form to arrange the information. With DBMS, you can access only one element at a time, which can lead to slower processing.

On the other hand, RDBMS uses tables to store and display information. The data featured in several tables can be related to each other for ease of use and better organization. If you want to access multiple elements at the same time, you can; there are no constraints regarding this, as opposed to DBMS.

Data Integrity and Consistency

When discussing data integrity and consistency, it’s necessary to explain the concept of constraints in DBMS and RDBMS. Constraints are sets of “criteria” applied to data and/or operations within a system. When constraints are in place, only specific types of information can be displayed, and only specific operations can be completed. Sounds restricting, doesn’t it? The entire idea behind constraints is to enhance the integrity, consistency, and correctness of data displayed within a database.

DBMS lacks constraints. Hence, there’s no guarantee the data within this system is consistent or correct. Since there are no constraints, the risk of errors is higher.

RDBMS have constraints, resulting in the reliability and integrity of the data. Plus, normalization (removing redundancies) is another option that contributes to data integrity in RDBMS. Unfortunately, normalization can’t be achieved in DBMS.

Query Language and Data Manipulation

DBMS uses multiple query languages to manipulate data. However, none of these languages offer the speed and convenience present in RDBMS.

RDBMS manipulates data with structured query language (SQL). This language lets you retrieve, create, insert, or drop data within your relational database without difficulty.

Scalability and Performance

If you have a small company and/or don’t need to deal with vast amounts of data, a DBMS can be the way to go. But keep in mind that a DBMS can only be accessed by one person at a time. Plus, there’s no option to access more than one element at once.

With RDBMSs, scalability and performance are moved to a new level. An RDBMS can handle large amounts of information in a jiff. It also supports multiple users and allows you to access several elements simultaneously, thus enhancing your efficiency. This makes RDBMSs excellent for larger companies that work with large quantities of data.

Security and Access Control

Last but not least, an important difference between DBMS and RDBMS lies in security and access control. DBMSs have basic security features. Therefore, there’s a higher chance of breaches and data theft.

RDBMSs have various security measures in place that keep your data safe at all times.

Choosing the Right Database Management System

The first criterion that will help you make the right call is your project’s size and complexity. Small projects with relatively simple data are ideal for DBMSs. But if you’re tackling a lot of complex data, RDBMSs are the logical option.

Next, consider your budget and resources. Since they’re simpler, DBMSs are more affordable, in both aspects. RDBMSs are more complex, so naturally, the price of software is higher.

Finally, the factor that affects what option is the best for you is the desired functionality. What do you want from the program? Is it robust features or a simple environment with a few basic options? Your answer will guide you in the right direction.

Pros and Cons of DBMS and RDBMS



  • Doesn’t involve complex query processing
  • Cost-effective solution
  • Ideal for processing small data
  • Easy data handling via basic SQL queries


  • Doesn’t allow accessing multiple elements at once
  • No way to relate data
  • Doesn’t inherently support normalization
  • Higher risk of security breaches
  • Single-user system



  • Advanced, robust, and well-organized
  • Ideal for large quantities of information
  • Data from multiple tables can be related
  • Multi-user system
  • Supports normalization


  • More expensive
  • Complex for some people

Examples of Use Cases


DBMS is used in many sectors where more basic storing and management of data is required, be it sales and marketing, education, banking, or online shopping. For instance, universities use DBMS to store student-related data, such as registration details, fees paid, attendance, exam results, etc. Libraries use it to manage the records of thousands of books.


RDBMS is used in many industries today, especially those continuously requiring processing and storing large volumes of data. For instance, Airline companies utilize RDBMS for passenger and flight-related information and schedules. Human Resource departments use RDBMS to store and manage information related to employees and their payroll statistics. Manufacturers around the globe use RDBMS for operational data, inventory management and supply chain information.

Choose the Best Solution

An RDBM is a more advanced and powerful younger sibling of a DBMS. While the former offers more features, convenience, and the freedom to manipulate data as you please, it isn’t always the right solution. When deciding which road to take, prioritize your needs.

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Il Sole 24 Ore: 100 thousand IT professionals missing
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
May 14, 2024 6 min read

Written on April 24th 2024

Source here: Il Sole 24 Ore (full article in Italian)

Open Institute of Technology: 100 thousand IT professionals missing

Eurostat data processed and disseminated by OPIT. Stem disciplines: the share of graduates in Italy between the ages of 20 and 29 is 18.3%, compared to the European 21.9%

Today, only 29% of young Italians between 25 and 34 have a degree. Not only that: compared to other European countries, the comparison is unequal given that the average in the Old Continent is 46%, bringing Italy to the penultimate place in this ranking, ahead only of Romania. The gap is evident even if the comparison is limited to STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) where the share of graduates in Italy between the ages of 20 and 29 is 18.3%, compared to the European 21.9%, with peaks of virtuosity which in the case of France that reaches 29.2%. Added to this is the continuing problem of the mismatch between job supply and demand, so much so that 62.8% of companies struggle to find professionals in the technological and IT fields.

The data

The Eurostat data was processed and disseminated by OPIT – Open Institute of Technology. an academic institution accredited at European level, active in the university level education market with online Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in the technological and digital fields. We are therefore witnessing a phenomenon with worrying implications on the future of the job market in Italy and on the potential loss of competitiveness of our companies at a global level, especially if inserted in a context in which the macroeconomic scenario in the coming years will undergo a profound discontinuity linked to the arrival of “exponential” technologies such as Artificial Intelligence and robotics, but also to the growing threats related to cybersecurity.

Requirements and updates

According to European House Ambrosetti, over 2,000,000 professionals will have to update their skills in the Digital and IT area by 2026, also to take advantage of the current 100,000 vacant IT positions, as estimated by Frank Recruitment Group. But not only that: the Italian context, which is unfavorable for providing the job market with graduates and skills, also has its roots in the chronic birth rate that characterizes our country: according to ISTAT data, in recent years the number of newborns has fallen by 28%, bringing Italy’s birth rate to 1.24, among the lowest in Europe, where the average is 1.46.

Profumo: “Structural deficiency”

“The chronic problem of the absence of IT professionals is structural and of a dual nature: on one hand the number of newborns – therefore, potential “professionals of the future” – is constantly decreasing; on the other hand, the percentage of young people who acquires degrees are firmly among the lowest in Europe”, declared Francesco Profumo, former Minister of Education and rector of OPIT – Open Institute of Technology. “The reasons are varied: from the cost of education (especially if undertaken off-site), to a university offering that is poorly aligned with changes in society, to a lack of awareness and orientation towards STEM subjects, which guarantee the highest employment rates. Change necessarily involves strong investments in the university system (and, in general, in the education system) at the level of the country, starting from the awareness that a functioning education system is the main driver of growth and development in the medium to long term. It is a debated and discussed topic on which, however, a clear and ambitious position is never taken.”

Stagnant context and educational offer

In this stagnant context, the educational offer that comes from online universities increasingly meets the needs of flexibility, quality and cost of recently graduated students, university students looking for specialization and workers interested in updating themselves with innovative skills. According to data from the Ministry of University and Research, enrollments in accredited online universities in Italy have grown by over 141 thousand units in ten years (since 2011), equal to 293.9%. Added to these are the academic institutions accredited at European level, such as OPIT, whose educational offering is overall capable of opening the doors to hundreds of thousands of students, with affordable costs and extremely innovative and updated degree paths.

Analyzing the figures

An analysis of Eurostat statistics relating to the year 2021 highlights that 27% of Europeans aged between 16 and 74 have attended an entirely digital course. The highest share is recorded in Ireland (46%), Finland and Sweden (45%) and the Netherlands (44%). The lowest in Romania (10%), Bulgaria (12%) and Croatia (18%). Italy is at 20%. “With OPIT” – adds Riccardo Ocleppo, founder and director – “we have created a new model of online academic institution, oriented towards new technologies, with innovative programs, a strong practical focus, and an international approach, with professors and students from 38 countries around the world, and teaching in English. We intend to train Italian students not only on current and updated skills, but to prepare them for an increasingly dynamic and global job market. Our young people must be able to face the challenges of the future like those who study at Stanford or Oxford: with solid skills, but also with relational and attitudinal skills that lead them to create global companies and startups or work in multinationals like their international colleagues. The increasing online teaching offer, if well structured and with quality, represents an incredible form of democratization of education, making it accessible at low costs and with methods that adapt to the flexibility needs of many working students.”

Point of reference

With two degrees already starting in September 2023 – a three-year degree (BSc) in Modern Computer Science and a specialization (MSc) in Applied Data Science & AI – and 4 starting in September 2024: a three-year degree (BSc) in Digital Business, and the specializations (MSc) in Enterprise Cybersecurity, Applied Digital Business and Responsible Artificial Intelligence (AI), OPIT is an academic institution of reference for those who intend to respond to the demands of a job market increasingly oriented towards the field of artificial intelligence. Added to this are a high-profile international teaching staff and an exclusively online educational offer focused on the technological and digital fields.

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Times of India: The 600,000 IT job shortage in India and how to solve it
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
May 2, 2024 3 min read

Written on April 25th 2024

Source here: Times of India 

The job market has never been a straightforward path. Ask anyone who has ever looked for a job, certainly within the last decade, and they can tell you as much. But with the rapid development of AI and machine learning, concerns are growing for people about their career options, with a report from Randstad finding that 7 in 10 people in India are concerned about their job being eliminated by AI.

 Employers have their own share of concerns. According to The World Economic Forum, 97 million new AI-related jobs will be created by 2025 and the share of jobs requiring AI skills will increase by 58%. The IT industry in India is experiencing a tremendous surge in demand for skilled professionals on disruptive technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, blockchain, cybersecurity and, according to Nasscom, this is leading to a shortage of 600,000 profiles.

 So how do we fill those gaps? Can we democratize access to top-tier higher education in technology?

These are the questions that Riccardo Ocleppo, the engineer who founded a hugely successful ed-tech platform connecting international students with global Universities, Docsity, asked himself for years. Until he took action and launched the Open Institute of Technology (OPIT), together with the Former Minister of Education of Italy, Prof. Francesco Profumo, to help people take control of their future careers.

OPIT offers BSc and MSc degrees in Computer Science, AI, Data Science, Cybersecurity, and Digital Business, attracting students from over 38 countries worldwide. Through innovative learning experiences and affordable tuition fees starting at €4,050 per year, OPIT empowers students to pursue their educational goals without the financial and personal burden of relocating.

The curriculum, delivered through a mix of live and pre-recorded lectures, equips students with the latest technology skills, as well as business and strategic acumen necessary for careers in their chosen fields. Moreover, OPIT’s EU-accredited degrees enable graduates to pursue employment opportunities in Europe, with recognition by WES facilitating transferability to the US and Canada.

OPIT’s commitment to student success extends beyond academics, with a full-fledged career services department led by Mike McCulloch. Remote students benefit from OPIT’s “digital campus,” fostering connections through vibrant discussion forums, online events, and networking opportunities with leading experts and professors.

Faculty at OPIT, hailing from prestigious institutions and industry giants like Amazon and Microsoft, bring a wealth of academic and practical experience to the table. With a hands-on, practical teaching approach, OPIT prepares students for the dynamic challenges of the modern job market.

In conclusion, OPIT stands as a beacon of hope for individuals seeking to future-proof their careers in technology. By democratizing access to high-quality education and fostering a global learning community, OPIT empowers students to seize control of their futures and thrive in the ever-evolving tech landscape.

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