When you first get into modern computing, one of the terms that comes up most frequently is relational databases. These are clusters that are organized in such a way that they effortlessly find links between connected data points.

Relational databases are convenient, but what happens when you deal with vast amounts of information? You need something to act as your North Star, guiding you through the network and allowing you to stay on top of the data.

That something is an RDBMS. According to Google, RDBMS stands for a relational database management system – software that sets up and manages relational databases. In its full form, it’s been the light at the end of the tunnel for thousands of companies due to its accuracy, security, and ease of use.

The definition and importance of RDBMSs are the tip of the iceberg when it comes to these systems. This introduction to RDBMS will delve a bit deeper by taking a closer look at the concept of RDBMS, the history of this technology, use cases, and the most common examples.

History of RDBMS

The concept of RDBMS might be shrouded in mystery for some. Thus, several questions may come up when discussing the notion, including one as basic as “What is RDBMS?”

Knowing the RDBMS definition is a great starting point on your journey to understanding this concept. But let’s take a few steps back and delve into the history of this system.

Origins of the Relational Model

What if we told you that the RDBMS concepts are older than the internet? It may sound surprising, but it’s true.

The concept of RDBMS was developed by Edgar F. Codd 43 years ago. He aimed to propose a more efficient way to store information, a method that would consume drastically less memory than anything at the time. His model was groundbreaking, to say the least.

E.F. Codd’s Paper on Relational Model

Codd laid down his proposal in a 1970s paper called “A Relational Model of Data for Large Shared Data Banks.” He advocated a database solution comprised of intertwined tables. These tables enabled the user to keep their information compact, lowering the amount of disk space necessary for storage (which was scarce at the time).

The rest is history. The public welcomed Codd’s model with open arms since it optimized storage requirements and allowed people to answer practically any question using his principle.

Development of SQL

Codd’s research paved the way for relational database management systems, the most famous of which is SQL. This programming language was also developed in the ‘70s and was originally named SEQUEL (Structured English Query Language). It was quickly implemented across the computing industry and grew more powerful as the years went by.

Evolution of RDBMS Software

The evolution of RDBMS software has been fascinating.

Early RDBMS Software

The original RDBMS software was powerful, but it wasn’t a cure-all. It was a match made in heaven for users dealing with structured data, allowing them to organize it with minimal effort. However, pictures, music, and other forms of unstructured information were largely incompatible with this model.

Modern RDBMS Software

Today’s RDBMS solutions have come a long way from their humble beginnings. A modern relational DBMS can process different forms of information with ease. Programs like MySQL are versatile, adaptable, and easy to set up, helping database professionals spearhead the development of practically any application.

Key Concepts in RDBMS

Here’s another request you may have for an expert in RDBMS – explain the most significant relational database concepts. If that’s your question, your request has been granted. Coming up is an overview of RDBMS concepts that explain RDBMS in simple terms.

Tables and Relations

Tables and relations are the bread and butter of all relational database management systems. They sound straightforward, but they’re much different from, say, elements you come across in Microsoft Excel.

Definition of Tables

Tables are where data is stored in an RDBMS. They’re comprised of rows and columns for easier organization.

Definition of Relations

Relations are the links between tables. There can be several types of relations, such as one-to-one connections. This form means a data point from one table only matches one data point from another table.

Primary and Foreign Keys

No discussion about RDBMS solutions is complete without primary and foreign keys.

Definition of Primary Keys

A primary key is the unique element of each table that defines the table’s rows. The number of primary keys in a table is limited to one.

Definition of Foreign Keys

Foreign keys are used to form an inextricable bond between tables. They always refer to the primary key of another table.


Much of database management is akin to separating wheat from the chaff. One of the processes that allow you to do so is normalization.

Purpose of Normalization

Normalization is about restoring (or creating) order in a database. It’s the procedure of eradicating unnecessary data for the purpose of cleaner tables and smoother management.

Normal Forms

Every action has its reaction. For example, the reaction of normalization is normal forms. These are forms of data that are free from redundant or duplicate information, making them easily accessible.

Popular RDBMS Software

This article has dissected basic relational database concepts, the RDBMS meaning, and RDBMS full form. To further shed light on the technology, take a look at the crème de la crème of RDBMS platforms.

Oracle Database

If you want to make headway in the database management industry, Oracle Database can be one of your best friends.

Overview of Oracle Database

Oracle Database is the most famous RDBMS around. The very database of this network is called Oracle, and the software comes in five different versions. Each rendition has a specific set of features and benefits, but some perks hold true for each one.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Highly secure – Oracle employs top-grade security measures.
  • Scalable – The system supports company growth with adaptable features.
  • Available – You can tap into the architecture whenever necessary for seamless adjustments.

Microsoft SQL Server

Let’s see what another powerhouse – Microsoft SQL Server – brings to the table.

Overview of Microsoft SQL Server

Microsoft SQL Server is a reliable RDBMS with admirable capabilities. Like Oracle, it’s available in a range of editions to target different groups, including personal and enterprise users.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Fast – Few systems rival the speed of Microsoft SQL Server.
  • Versatile – The network supports on-premise and cloud applications.
  • Affordable – You won’t burn a hole in your pocket if you buy the standard version.


You can take your business to new heights with MySQL. The following section will explore what makes this RDBMS a go-to pick for Uber, Slack, and many other companies.

Overview of MySQL

MySQL is another robust RDBMS that enables fast data retrieval. It’s an open-source solution, making it less complex than some other platforms.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Quick – Efficient memory use speeds up the MySQL environment.
  • Secure – Bulletproof password systems safeguard against hacks.
  • Scalable – You can use MySQL both for small and large data sets.


Last but not least, PostgreSQL is a worthy contender for the best RDBMS on the market.

Overview of PostgreSQL

If you need a long-running RDBMS, you can’t go wrong with PostgreSQL. It’s an open-source solution that’s received more than two decades’ worth of refinement.

Key Features and Benefits

  • Nested transactions – These elements deliver higher concurrency control.
  • Anti-hack environment – Advanced locking features keep cybercriminals at bay.
  • Table inheritance – This feature makes the network more consistent.

RDBMS Use Cases

Now we get to what might be the crux of the RDBMS discussion: Where can you implement these convenient solutions?

Data Storage and Retrieval

  • Storing large amounts of structured data – Use an RDBMS to keep practically unlimited structured data.
  • Efficient data retrieval – Retrieve data in a split second with an RDBMS.

Data Analysis and Reporting

  • Analyzing data for trends and patterns – Discover customer behavior trends with a robust RDBMS.
  • Generating reports for decision-making – Facilitate smart decision-making with RDBMS-generated reports.

Application Development

  • Backend for web and mobile applications – Develop a steady web and mobile backend architecture with your RDBMS.
  • Integration with other software and services – Combine an RDBMS with other programs to elevate its functionality.

RDBMS vs. NoSQL Database

Many alternatives to RDBMS have sprung up, including NoSQL databases. But what makes these two systems different?

Overview of NoSQL Databases

A NoSQL database is the stark opposite of RDBMS solutions. It takes a non-relational approach, which is deemed more efficient by many.

Key Differences Between RDBMS and NoSQL Databases

  • Data model – RDBMSs store structured data, whereas NoSQL databases store unstructured information.
  • Scalability – NoSQL is more scalable because it doesn’t require a fixed schema (relation-based model).
  • Consistency – RDBMSs achieve consistency through rules, while NoSQL models feature eventual consistency.

Choosing the Right Database for Your Needs

Keep these guidelines in mind when selecting your database platform:

  • Use an RDBMS for centralized apps and NoSQL for decentralized solutions.
  • Use an RDBMS for structured data and NoSQL for unstructured data.
  • Use an RDBMS for moderate data activity and NoSQL for high data activity.

Exploring the Vast Utility of RDBMS

If you’re looking for a descriptive answer to the “what is relational database management system question,” here it is – it is the cornerstone of database management for countless enterprises. It’s ideal for structured data projects and gives the user the reins of data management. Plus, it’s as secure as it gets.

The future looks even more promising. Database professionals are expected to rely more on blockchain technology and cloud storage to elevate the efficacy of RDBMS.

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Il Sole 24 Ore: 100 thousand IT professionals missing
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
May 14, 2024 6 min read

Written on April 24th 2024

Source here: Il Sole 24 Ore (full article in Italian)

Open Institute of Technology: 100 thousand IT professionals missing

Eurostat data processed and disseminated by OPIT. Stem disciplines: the share of graduates in Italy between the ages of 20 and 29 is 18.3%, compared to the European 21.9%

Today, only 29% of young Italians between 25 and 34 have a degree. Not only that: compared to other European countries, the comparison is unequal given that the average in the Old Continent is 46%, bringing Italy to the penultimate place in this ranking, ahead only of Romania. The gap is evident even if the comparison is limited to STEM disciplines (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) where the share of graduates in Italy between the ages of 20 and 29 is 18.3%, compared to the European 21.9%, with peaks of virtuosity which in the case of France that reaches 29.2%. Added to this is the continuing problem of the mismatch between job supply and demand, so much so that 62.8% of companies struggle to find professionals in the technological and IT fields.

The data

The Eurostat data was processed and disseminated by OPIT – Open Institute of Technology. an academic institution accredited at European level, active in the university level education market with online Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees in the technological and digital fields. We are therefore witnessing a phenomenon with worrying implications on the future of the job market in Italy and on the potential loss of competitiveness of our companies at a global level, especially if inserted in a context in which the macroeconomic scenario in the coming years will undergo a profound discontinuity linked to the arrival of “exponential” technologies such as Artificial Intelligence and robotics, but also to the growing threats related to cybersecurity.

Requirements and updates

According to European House Ambrosetti, over 2,000,000 professionals will have to update their skills in the Digital and IT area by 2026, also to take advantage of the current 100,000 vacant IT positions, as estimated by Frank Recruitment Group. But not only that: the Italian context, which is unfavorable for providing the job market with graduates and skills, also has its roots in the chronic birth rate that characterizes our country: according to ISTAT data, in recent years the number of newborns has fallen by 28%, bringing Italy’s birth rate to 1.24, among the lowest in Europe, where the average is 1.46.

Profumo: “Structural deficiency”

“The chronic problem of the absence of IT professionals is structural and of a dual nature: on one hand the number of newborns – therefore, potential “professionals of the future” – is constantly decreasing; on the other hand, the percentage of young people who acquires degrees are firmly among the lowest in Europe”, declared Francesco Profumo, former Minister of Education and rector of OPIT – Open Institute of Technology. “The reasons are varied: from the cost of education (especially if undertaken off-site), to a university offering that is poorly aligned with changes in society, to a lack of awareness and orientation towards STEM subjects, which guarantee the highest employment rates. Change necessarily involves strong investments in the university system (and, in general, in the education system) at the level of the country, starting from the awareness that a functioning education system is the main driver of growth and development in the medium to long term. It is a debated and discussed topic on which, however, a clear and ambitious position is never taken.”

Stagnant context and educational offer

In this stagnant context, the educational offer that comes from online universities increasingly meets the needs of flexibility, quality and cost of recently graduated students, university students looking for specialization and workers interested in updating themselves with innovative skills. According to data from the Ministry of University and Research, enrollments in accredited online universities in Italy have grown by over 141 thousand units in ten years (since 2011), equal to 293.9%. Added to these are the academic institutions accredited at European level, such as OPIT, whose educational offering is overall capable of opening the doors to hundreds of thousands of students, with affordable costs and extremely innovative and updated degree paths.

Analyzing the figures

An analysis of Eurostat statistics relating to the year 2021 highlights that 27% of Europeans aged between 16 and 74 have attended an entirely digital course. The highest share is recorded in Ireland (46%), Finland and Sweden (45%) and the Netherlands (44%). The lowest in Romania (10%), Bulgaria (12%) and Croatia (18%). Italy is at 20%. “With OPIT” – adds Riccardo Ocleppo, founder and director – “we have created a new model of online academic institution, oriented towards new technologies, with innovative programs, a strong practical focus, and an international approach, with professors and students from 38 countries around the world, and teaching in English. We intend to train Italian students not only on current and updated skills, but to prepare them for an increasingly dynamic and global job market. Our young people must be able to face the challenges of the future like those who study at Stanford or Oxford: with solid skills, but also with relational and attitudinal skills that lead them to create global companies and startups or work in multinationals like their international colleagues. The increasing online teaching offer, if well structured and with quality, represents an incredible form of democratization of education, making it accessible at low costs and with methods that adapt to the flexibility needs of many working students.”

Point of reference

With two degrees already starting in September 2023 – a three-year degree (BSc) in Modern Computer Science and a specialization (MSc) in Applied Data Science & AI – and 4 starting in September 2024: a three-year degree (BSc) in Digital Business, and the specializations (MSc) in Enterprise Cybersecurity, Applied Digital Business and Responsible Artificial Intelligence (AI), OPIT is an academic institution of reference for those who intend to respond to the demands of a job market increasingly oriented towards the field of artificial intelligence. Added to this are a high-profile international teaching staff and an exclusively online educational offer focused on the technological and digital fields.

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Times of India: The 600,000 IT job shortage in India and how to solve it
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
OPIT - Open Institute of Technology
May 2, 2024 3 min read

Written on April 25th 2024

Source here: Times of India 

The job market has never been a straightforward path. Ask anyone who has ever looked for a job, certainly within the last decade, and they can tell you as much. But with the rapid development of AI and machine learning, concerns are growing for people about their career options, with a report from Randstad finding that 7 in 10 people in India are concerned about their job being eliminated by AI.

 Employers have their own share of concerns. According to The World Economic Forum, 97 million new AI-related jobs will be created by 2025 and the share of jobs requiring AI skills will increase by 58%. The IT industry in India is experiencing a tremendous surge in demand for skilled professionals on disruptive technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, blockchain, cybersecurity and, according to Nasscom, this is leading to a shortage of 600,000 profiles.

 So how do we fill those gaps? Can we democratize access to top-tier higher education in technology?

These are the questions that Riccardo Ocleppo, the engineer who founded a hugely successful ed-tech platform connecting international students with global Universities, Docsity, asked himself for years. Until he took action and launched the Open Institute of Technology (OPIT), together with the Former Minister of Education of Italy, Prof. Francesco Profumo, to help people take control of their future careers.

OPIT offers BSc and MSc degrees in Computer Science, AI, Data Science, Cybersecurity, and Digital Business, attracting students from over 38 countries worldwide. Through innovative learning experiences and affordable tuition fees starting at €4,050 per year, OPIT empowers students to pursue their educational goals without the financial and personal burden of relocating.

The curriculum, delivered through a mix of live and pre-recorded lectures, equips students with the latest technology skills, as well as business and strategic acumen necessary for careers in their chosen fields. Moreover, OPIT’s EU-accredited degrees enable graduates to pursue employment opportunities in Europe, with recognition by WES facilitating transferability to the US and Canada.

OPIT’s commitment to student success extends beyond academics, with a full-fledged career services department led by Mike McCulloch. Remote students benefit from OPIT’s “digital campus,” fostering connections through vibrant discussion forums, online events, and networking opportunities with leading experts and professors.

Faculty at OPIT, hailing from prestigious institutions and industry giants like Amazon and Microsoft, bring a wealth of academic and practical experience to the table. With a hands-on, practical teaching approach, OPIT prepares students for the dynamic challenges of the modern job market.

In conclusion, OPIT stands as a beacon of hope for individuals seeking to future-proof their careers in technology. By democratizing access to high-quality education and fostering a global learning community, OPIT empowers students to seize control of their futures and thrive in the ever-evolving tech landscape.

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